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International Section

DZRP Inhaltsverzeich.

ArGe Bibliothek


Zarenreich bis 1917

RSFSR 1918-1923

UdSSR 1923-1991

Nebengebiete bis1943

Russland ab 1991


Motive Russland



last update 13.1.2012
Alexander Epstein (Tallinn, Estonia)
(Part I, II and addendum)

The article by Wolfgang Leupold published recently in DZRP [1] raised an interesting but still unresolved problem called by him "local tariff autonomy" at a particular locality Khashchevato, Podolia province, Ukraine. It seems, however, that this problem should be considered and discussed in a much wider aspect. It turns out that the same unusual rate was applied in rather large territory as it will be shown further in this article. But there are found on mail in 1920-1923 in the Soviet republics of Russia, Ukraine and Byelorussia much more examples of franking that did not match the tariffs officially proclaimed by the Central Postal Administration. They will be discussed hereunder.

To understand better this phenomenon, one should be aware of that, how the postal service was organized in those years. The central administration was represented by People Commissariat of Posts-and-Telegraphs of RSFSR created just after the Bolsheviks seized power in October 1917 instead of the corresponding ministry of the Provisional Government. In the years under consideration, this institution administered the postal services not only in Russia but also in Ukraine and Byelorussia, which positioned themselves as independent Soviet republics but which had no similar people commissariats of their own. However, this was no direct administration. If there existed before 1919 postal/telegraphic districts subordinated to this People Commissariat which transferred the corresponding orders and decrees to the provincial administrations, these intermediate links were abolished afterwards, and the actual power over the postal/telegraphic establishments was handed over to the postal/telegraphic sections at the provincial executive committees. In some regions, such as the "independent" and autonomous Soviet republic, there was created in 1922 also the position of Plenipotentiary of People Commissariat of Posts-and-Telegraphs who had rights for taking some own decisions, inc. postponement of introducing the new sets of postal rates announced from Moscow etc. As a fact of the matter, such postponements could persist for rather long periods.

As the analysis of the available material shows, the provincial (gubernia) (in some cases, even district (uezd)) postal/telegraphic sections used their own discretion when interpreting the current foreign postal rate (in some cases, even inland rates) in 1921-1922. Such practice was put to an end only by the beginning of 1923 when the so-called Communication Districts, analogs of the former Post-Telegraph Districts but with addition of the wireless communication were formed and the provincial administrations lost their power.

Let us now turn to particular examples when trying to get some general picture and start with the

Foreign postal rates from the summer of 1920 to September 1921
V. Karlinski [2] was the first who disclosed the foreign postal rates of the RSFSR introduced as from June 1920. It was the second publication by him on the matter of Soviet postal rates, but these particular rates were not mentioned in his previous article on the same topic [3]. Unfortunately, he did not refer to the documents where those rates had been proclaimed. However, the few examples of the corresponding mail known to the researchers at that time did not confirm the trustworthiness of these tariffs which turned out regularly as twice as the actual franking. Therefore, I turned on then to such primary source of information as the official Bulletin of the People Commissariat of Posts-and-Telegraphs of RSFSR where the following was stated in the circular No. ? 33? of 7 June: [4]:

"There is resumed forwarding of ordinary and registered letters to foreign countries (except China and Japan): 1) The rates for weight and insurance are 50 times more than it was indicated in "Regulations on the Postal Part" of the 1917 edition. 2) Ordinary letters weighing up to 15 g and postcards are not subject for payment".

All such mail should be routed via the Norwegian post office at Vardö. It was transported there from Murmansk on the board of a Norwegian ship, a special contract was signed by the Russian postal administration with the captain of that ship. Somewhat later, a similar contract was concluded with the captain of an Italian ship to forward mail from Odessa [5]. Only starting from 1921, special postal conventions for mail exchange were being concluded directly with postal administrations of the neighboring countries.

Another circular under No. 673 was issued a few months later, i.e. on 30 September, demanding payment also for the ordinary mail on the same terms as the registered mail. This circular was not published in the official journal and was referred to in the circular No. 344 of 1 April 1921 demanding to confirm the obligatory character of franking with stamps the letters, postcards and printed matter sent abroad. The international mail having been unpaid at all was not subject to be forwarded. However, an incompletely prepaid mail could be forwarded nevertheless if this was of an occasional character [6].

Thus the problem rests on the question which were the rates indicated in the "Regulations". The "Regulations" of 1917 were prepared still when the Postal Administration was a department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, i.e. before an independent Ministry of Posts-and-Telegraphs was organized at the Provisional Government. The foreign postal rates were then 4 kop for postcards, 10 kop for letters and 10 kop for registration persisting as such from 1889, and just these tariffs should be taken as the base for calculating the rates of 1920. Only as from 1 September 1917, they became as twice as before. Consequently, the postal rates for the mail abroad introduced in June and September 1920 should be as follows: 2 rub for postcards, 5 rub for letters and 5 rub for registration.

It should be mentioned in this connection that the foreign rates were traditionally fixed both in Imperial and Soviet Russia (up to a certain time) on the basis of the UPU rates converted from the French francs (centimes) to Russian rubles (kopeks), first as 1 to 1 and later as their multiplies when inflation demanded this. In any case, the ratios between the tariffs for different kinds of mail remained unchanged.

Karlinski indicated also a set of rates introduced allegedly in 1921 and being as twice as the rates of 1920. However, I could not find any indication to such rates in the official journal. The only but indirect evidence of that the foreign rates were actually raised (at least, in some regions) was found in the form of a circular issued by the Head of Kiev provincial postal/telegraphic section on 15 August 1921 [7]. It was issued when the internal postal rates were drastically raised but the foreign rates still remained on the previous level. It stated among the other:

"…A common order is established for foreign registered mail the payment for which must be collected by postage stamps in the amount of the previous rate equal to twenty rubles; as to the part of amount which is missing to the new rates, i.e. 1230 rubles up to 15 grams…, it should be collected in cash with marking this on the letter covers and senders' journals. The payment for ordinary letters abroad remains temporarily as before, i.e. 10 rubles for each".

An addition to this circular followed a few days later, i.e. on 24 August [7]:

"…1) collect the payment for international ordinary and registered mail as for internal ones according to the new rate. The postage shall be collected obligatory by franking with postage stamps, the registered mail being handled according to the circular No. 7/351 of 15 August…".

One should pay attention to the fact that the first of these circulars deals only with letters and does not mention postcards, while the second one uses a general term - mail. However, basing on these documents, I concluded too that the postal rates abroad were doubled in 1921, at least, in some regions. The rates deduced in such manner were published e.g. in [8], and they were a half of those cited by Karlinski.

As the years passed, the chances of obtaining new information greatly increased thanks to the Web in general and eBay in particular. Thus, I succeeded to learn about rather great number of other letters and postcards sent from the Soviet republics abroad in 1920 and 1921 unknown to me before. The following sample is represented by items of mail found from various literature sources, auctions, inc. eBay, and collections, inc. my own. This sample includes ordinary and registered letters and postcards. However, it does not include other kinds of mail, e.g. printed matter, since such items of mail are rarely found.

Dispatch place Dispatch date Destination Franking Figure
Ordinary postcards
Arkhangel'sk province
Solombala07.10.20Finlandfree (taxed in Finland)1
Charkow province
Don province
Novocherkassk13.09.21Germany8 r+
Moscow province
Moscow06.07.20Estoniafree (taxed in Estonia)
Moscow17.11.20Latviafree (taxed in Latvia)2
Moscow02.06.21Polandfree (not taxed)
Moscow21.07.21England10 r   *1)
Serpukhov01.08.21Germany2 r
Nikolaev province
Bol’shaya Alexandrovka22.12.20Lithuaniafree (not taxed)
Odessa province
Bergdorf15.08.20Estoniafree (taxed in Estonia)3
Olonets province
Petrozavodsk09.07.20Estoniafree (taxed in Estonia)
Omsk province
Omsk31.01.21Estoniafree (not taxed)
Penza province
Penza12.07.20Estoniafree (taxed in Estonia)
Perm’ province
Aramilevskoe23.12.20Estoniafree (taxed both in Russia & Estonia)4
Petrograd province
Luga16.05.20Estoniafree (taxed in Estonia)5
Tsarskoe Selo07.07.20Latviafree (taxed in Latvia)6
Petrograd09.07.20Latviafree (taxed in Latvia)
Petrograd16.07.20Estoniafree (taxed in Estonia)
Detskoe Selo21.7.20   *2)Estoniafree (taxed in Estonia)
Petrograd17.09.20Estoniafree (taxed in Estonia)
Petrograd02.10.20Estoniafree (taxed in Estonia)
Petrograd05.10.20Estoniafree (taxed in Estonia)
Petrograd11.10.20Estoniafree (taxed in Estonia)
Petrograd09.11.20Estoniafree (taxed in Estonia)
Petrograd13.11.20Estoniafree (taxed in Estonia)
Petrograd30.11.20Germanyfree (taxed in Russia)7
Petrograd11.12.20Estoniafree (taxed both in Russia & Estonia)
Petrograd14.12.20Estoniafree (taxed both in Russia
Petrograd19.12.20Estoniafree (taxed both in Russia
Petrograd28.01.21Estoniafree (taxed)
Petrograd29.01.21Estoniafree (taxed in Russia)8
Petrograd23.02.21Germany10 r
Orlino03.03.21Germanyfree (taxed)
Petrograd05.04.21Estonia5 r
Petrograd15.05.21Estonia5 r9
Petrograd12.06.21Latvia5 r
Petrograd15.06.21Germany5 r
Pskow province
Tver’ province
Tver’11.05.21Switzerland11 r
Zaporozh’e province
Berdyansk24.01.21Neth. Indiafree (not taxed)
Registered postcards
Arkhangel’sk province
Arkhangel’sk16.06.20Syria7 r
Solombala15.12.20Germany7 r
Solombala16.12.20Austria7 r10
Arkhangel’sk17.05.21Switzerland10 r
Solombala30.05.21Australia10 r
Solombala13.06.21Australia10 r
Solombala29.06.21Germany10 r
Solombala16.07.21Germany10 r
Arkhangel’sk09.08.21Switzerland10 r11
Solombala15.08.21Germany10 r
Solombala01.09.21Germany10 r
Solombala03.09.21Germany12 r
Solombala06.09.21Germany10 r
Solombala07.09.21Germany10 r
Solombala09.09.21Germany10 r
Solombala12.09.21Germany10 r12
Solombala14.09.21Germany10 r
Solombala15.09.21Austria10 r
Solombala18.09.21Germany10 r
Don province
Novocherkassk10.06.21Belgium15 r   *3)
Novocherkassk14.06.21France16 r13
Novocherkassk16.09.21France15 r14
Kiev province
Kiev31.05.21Germany20 r
Kiev22.06.21USA20 r (in cash)
Kiev30.06.21USA10 r (in cash)
Kiev27.08.21USA20 r+
Moscow province
Moscow04.05.21Germany10 r
Moscow20.05.21Germany10 r15
Moscow22.06.21Germany7 r
Moscow26.06.21Switzerland10 r   *4)
Novgorod province
Selishchenskie Kazarmy14.09.20Estonia7 r16
Omsk province
Omsk11.11.20USA10 r
Petrograd province
Petrograd15.03.21Estonia10 r17
Petrograd26.07.21Estonia10 r18
Petrograd16.08.21England5 r    *5)
Tver’ province
Rzhev21.06.20Latvia10 r19
Zaporoz’e province
Prishib18.03.21Latvia35 r
Far Eastern Republic
Chita-Vokzal18.02.21Spain10 r
Ordinary letters
Arkhangel’sk province
Arkhangel’sk27.06.21Germany5 r (porto Ger.)20
Kiev province
Svyatoshin27.12.20Germanyfree (not taxed)
Minsk province
Koidanovo16.08.21USA10 r
Moscow province
Moscow30.06.20Estoniafree (taxed in Estonia)
Serpukhov.08.06.21USA5 r
Moscow?.8.21Austria5 r21
Moscow12.08.21USA25 r    *4)
Nikolaev province
Kherson25.05.21England15 r    *6)
Petrograd province
Petrograd28.04.20Estoniafree (taxed in Estonia)
Petrograd02.07.20Estoniafree (taxed in Estonia)
Saratov province
Linevo-Ozero21.09.20Austriafree (not taxed)22
Smolensk province
Smolensk14.07.20Englandfree (not taxed)
Ufa province
Emashevka21.08.21USA5 r
Registered letters
Arkhangel’sk province
Solombala03.12.20Germany10 r
Solombala09.12.20Germany10 r
Solombala16.05.21Austria10 r
Solombala05.06.21Austria10 r
Solombala25.08.21Germany10 r
Crimea Tatarian Autonomous Republic
Spat12.05.21USA10 r
Kerch’21.08.21Berlin20 r23
Don province
Novocherkassk28.03.21Estonia10 r24
Rostov-Don12.04.21Italy20 r25
Novocherkassk02.07.21Latvia20 r 85 k
Rostov, Don07.07.21France10 r
Novocherkassk11.07.21Germany30 r
Ekaterinoslav province
Ekaterinoslav?.8.20USA20 r
Ekateinoslav24.02.21USA20 r
Pavlograd?.3.21Latvia10 r
Ekaterinoslav11.05.21Estonia20 r 70 k
Amur14.07.21USA21 r
Gomel’ province
Gomel30.06.21Switzerland22 r
Kharkov province
Kharkov01.07.20USA10 r26
FPO “D“?.7.20Estonia10 r    *4)
Kharkov21.01.21Estonia10 r
Kharkov25.01.21Latvia35 r
Kharkov01.04.21England10 r
Kharkov04.06.21Latvia10 r
Kharkov16.06.21USA10 r27
Kharkov04.07.21Germany15 r
Kiev province
Kiev11.07.20USA10 r
Belaya Tserkov’11.07.20USA25 r
Belaya Tserkov’25.07.20USA25 r
Belaya Tserkov’02.08.20USA25 r
Uman’27.08.20USA10 r
Uman’29.08.20USA10 r
Ruzhin31.12.20USA50 r
FPO # 69 (72)13.01.21USA30 r
Belaya Tserkov’24.01.21USA10 r28
Kiev12.05.21Poland20 r
Kiev06.06.21Germany20 r29
Uman’?.7.21USA17 r 50 k
Kiev06.08.21Greece20 r
Kiev13.08.21USA20 r +
Kiev15.08.21USA20 r +
Kiev18.08.21USA20 r +
Kiev20.08.21USA20 r +
Kiev28.08.21USA20 r +
Kiev03.09.21USA20 r +
Kiev04.09.21Denmark20 r +
Demievka06.09.21USA20 r +
FPO # 9416.09.21USA20 r
Kiev18.09.21USA20 r +
Tal’noe24.09.21Germany20 r +
Kiev29.09.21USA20 r +
Kremenchug province
Zlatopol’28.05.21USA10 r
Kuban’ province
Armavir05.09.20USA20 r
Ispravnaya05.05.21Latvia10 r
Minsk province
Koidanovo03.05.21USA12 r
Igumen04.07.21USA20 r30
Minsk14.08.21Germany25 r31
Moscow province
Moscow14.01.21Switzerland10 r
Moscow05.03.21Finland10 r
Moscow21.05.21Germany10 r32
Moscow-Alexandr. Vokz.22.05.21Austria20 r
Moscow-Ver. Teplye Stany31.05.21Germany20 r
Moscow-Ver. Teplye Stany14.06.21Germany20 r
Moscow-Ver. Teplye Stany28.06.21Germany30 r
Moscow29.06.21Switzerland20 r
Moscow04.07.21Germany15 r
Moscow21.07.21England10 r
Moscow06.08.21USA10 r
Moscow10.08.21Germany10 r (taxed)
Moscow22.08.21Switzerland10 r+
Nikolaev province
Elisavetgrad27.08.21USA20 r
Novgorod province
Volokoslavinskoe02.04.21Estonia10 r33
Odessa province
Odessa20.01.21Germany25 r
Odessa24.03.21USA25 r
Odessa03.05.21Germany25 r
Odessa30.05.21USA25 r34
Odessa30.07.21USA25 r
Odessa08.08.21Germany30 r
Odessa11.08.21USA25 r
Odessa25.08.21Germany25 r35
Odessa27.08.21Yugoslavia25 r
Orel province
Bezhitsa02.04.21Latvia10 r
Perm’ province
Perm’27.06.21Germany20 r
Perm’14.08.21Germany30 r
Petrograd province
Petrograd11.06.20Switzerland20 r
Tsarskoe Selo09.09.20Estonia10 r36
Petrograd18.11.20France10 r
Petrograd30.03.21Estonia10 r
Petrograd17.05.21Germany10 r
Petrograd02.08.21Latvia15 r (2 lots)37
Petrograd15.06.21Switzerland10 r
Schliesselburg Powder Plant04.07.21Germany10 r
Petrograd07.07.21Sweden10 r
Petrograd11.07.21Germany15 r
Petrograd12.08.21USA10 r
Petrograd14.08.21Germany10 r
Petrograd14.08.21Latvia10 r
Petrograd-Vitebsk. Vokz.14.08.21Germany10 r
Petrograd18.08.21Switzerland10 r
Petrograd20.08.21Liberia/Mexico15 r
Petrograd20.08.21Germany33 r
Petrograd22.08.21USA20 r+38
Petrograd23.08.21Germany10 r39
Petrograd23.08.21France15 r
Petrograd31.08.21Estonia20 r
Podolia province
Vinnitsa03.05.21Poland20 r
Dzygovka27.06.21USA50 r40
Shargorod22.07.21England500 r
Kamenets06.08.21USA25 r
Pskov province
Kartachi31.01.21Estonia20 r41
Pskov25.04.21Germany10 r
Pskov28.04.21Latvia10 r
Saratov province
Saratov24.08.20Latvia20 r
Simbirsk province
Syzran’30.05.21USA10 r
Smolensk province
Vetlitskoe25.07.21Switzerland30 r
Tambov province
Lipetsk23.08.20Germany10 r
Tula province
Troitse-Orlovskoe25.04.21Czechoslovakia10 r
Turgai province
Kustanai26.06.20Germany100 r or 10 r7
Volyn’ province
Berdichev20.07.20USA10 r
Berdichev23.07.20USA10 r
Berdichev?.7.20USA10 r
Malin07.09.20USA20 r
Berdichev10.01.21USA10 r
Labun’21.05.21Switzerland50 r
Labun’27.05.21USA50 r
Iskorost’22.06.21USA10 r
Pyatki23.06.21USA20 r
Zhitomir07.09.21USA20 r
Far Eastern Republic
Chita18.02.21USA10 r

*1)The postcard was franked but sent as ordinary mail.
*2)The dispatch postmark is missing, the date is that of the message.
*3)A 7-r stamp is removed.
*4)The stamps are not cancelled
*5)It is a blue 20-kop PS card of 'Kerenski' design franked additionally with a 5-rub RSFSR stamp issued on 10 August 1921. As the postcard was registered, one can suppose that the PS card itself was taken into account at 2 or 5 rub when calculating the total franking.
*6)The cover is inscribed as registered, but there is neither label nor cachet of pointing to registration. Probably, the letter was sent as ordinary.
*7)Kustanai provisionals, i.e. Imperial Arms definitives overprinted "RUB" were used for franking this letter. Such overprint meant usually a 100-times revaluation. In such a case, the total franking would amount to 100 rub. Alternatively, one can suppose that in this case the stamps were taken into account as revalued only 10 times that would lead to a total franking on 10 rub.

The examples of mail are grouped in the chronological order according to the provinces of the Soviet republics of Russia, Ukraine and Byelorussia as well as Far Eastern Republic which applied at that period the postal rates of RSFSR. The sign "+" after the amount of franking means that after raising the inland rates as from 15 August 1921 either the franking with stamps followed with collecting the sum missing to the actual rate (as in the Kiev province) or the initial franking according to the previous rate was then supplemented with new stamps or the cash payment, while the original franking was ignored.

Of course, the distribution of items among the provinces is very uneven. The most of examples falls on such large cities as Petrograd, Moscow, Kiev, Odessa and their provinces. It is quite understandable, since the bulk of mail abroad came just for such cities. Rather great amount of such examples falls also on the mail of some dealers who corresponded with abroad, e.g. V. Tarasov from Solombala, a suburb of Arkhangel'sk. From the total number of 217 examples, a great majority - 129 - is represented by registered letters. The ratio of registered to ordinary letters is 129 to 13, registered to ordinary postcards - 38 to 38 and letters to postcards generally - 141 to 76. Also such proportions are understandable. Letters were always the predominating kind of mail. A greater number of registered letters in this sample in comparison with the ordinary ones can be explained by two reasons: 1) registered mail is more often preserved because of its higher attractiveness to collectors and 2) the senders preferred to register their mail because of the unstable conditions prevailing in these years. On the other hand, some people preferred just ordinary postcards if the message did not contain any important information.

Let us now analyze the sample. As in any sample, there are some examples falling out of the prevailing trend. In most cases concerning the ordinary mail, this is due to sender's non-awareness of the current postal rate. Such examples are not taken into account in the analysis. Some provinces are represented by a single or very few examples, so no definite conclusions can be drawn in such cases.

Let us begin with the letters. It is evident that the rates proclaimed by the circulars of 6 June and 30 September, i.e. 5 rub or free for ordinary and 10 rub for registered letters, prevailed during 1920 and the very first months of 1921 in the most of provinces. This concerns, first of all, Petrograd, Moscow, Kharkov and Arkhangel'sk, partly also Kiev with their provinces. True, there are some fallings-out even in these provinces. For instance, we find three registered covers from Belaya Tserkov' (July-August), all franked on 25 rub and one from Ruzhin even with a 50-rub franking. On the other hand, one more cover from Belaya Tserkov' (January 1921) is franked on 10 rub. Also we have from the Volyn' province four registered covers from Berdichev (July 1920 and January 1921) with a 10-rub franking but one from Malin (September) franked on 20 rub. The very first cover sent from Petrograd in June also has a 20-rub franking.

There are, however, some provinces where we have a single registered cover from each franked on 20-rub in 1920 (Ekaterinoslav, Kuban', Saratov). All five ordinary letters sent from various provinces in 1920 and available for this sample were sent free; no 5-rub franking was found in this year.

As concerns registered postcards, we have from 1920 three examples franked on 7 rub (two from Arkhangel'sk and one from Novgorod province) but there is such postcards from Omsk and Rzhev, Tver' province with a 10-rub franking. However, all the ordinary postcards available for the sample were sent free even after the circular of 30 September: most of them were taxed either at the destination in a foreign country or also in Russia as well; there are also a few examples not taxed at all. However, not a single ordinary postcard franked according to the expected rate 2 rub was found for this sample.

The examples from 1921 are much more numerous and complicated. Again Petrograd, Moscow, Kiev, Kharkov, Odessa, Ekaterinoslav, and Arkhangel'sk, inc. their provinces, give us a great majority of examples. As concerns the registered and ordinary letters from Petrograd, Moscow, Kharkov, Arkhangel'sk, the overwhelming majority of them represents a 10- or 5-rub franking, respectively, although in Moscow and Petrograd also cases of higher franking (20 or even 30 rub) are observed as well, particularly at some Moscow city branches. On the other hand, almost all the registered covers e.g. from Kiev and Ekaterinoslav provinces show the franking on 20 rub, although there is an exception for Pavlograd, Ekaterinoslav province which cover is franked on 10 rub. There are also 1 or 2 covers from each of the following provinces franked on either 10 rub (Kremenchug, Novgorod, Simbirsk, FER) or 20 rub (Gomel', Perm', Saratov) and even 30 rub (Smolensk). Some provinces represented by 2-5 covers show contradictive results: there are covers franked on 10 rub to 30 rub, inc. the cases of franking close to these figures (Don, Crimea, Kuban', Minsk, Pskov). Ordinary letters from those provinces are missing, except one from Koidanovo, the Minsk province franked on 10 rub as one should expect if registered letters are franked on 20 rub.

All the registered covers from Odessa with a single exception are franked on 25 rub. This anomaly can be interpreted in a double manner: either this rate was fixed as 125 times of the basic tariff or there was some additional tax. Unfortunately, the lack of ordinary letters or any postcards from Odessa does not let drawing any definite conclusions.

Podolia and Volyn' provinces show the most astonishing results. There are three registered covers franked on 20 rub (from Vinnitsa, Pyatki and Zhitomir) but also a cover from Kamenets-Podol'sk franked on 25 rub, three covers with a 50-rub franking (2 from Labun' and 1 from Dzygovka) and one from Shargorod franked even on 500 rub in cash! The latter can be a slip of the pen when inscribed the cash franking on cover. On the other, hand, however, even such amount did not look fantastic for July 1921 if one remembers that only about a month afterwards even the corresponding inland rate was more than doubled and the foreign rate became 4 times higher.

However, the available registered letters from the provincial centers (Ekaterinoslav, Vinnitsa, Zhitomir) are franked just on 20 rub, while the deviations down or up relate to the remote localities. It looks also as the foreign rates were fixed somewhere not only on the provincial but also the district level.

Let us now turn to the postcards sent in 1921. With a few exceptions of ordinary postcards sent free but taxed (one from Moscow sent in June remained without taxation), all ordinary and registered postcards in the sample from Petrograd, Moscow and Arkhangel'sk with their provinces are franked on 5 rub or 10 rub, respectively. There is, however, an ordinary postcard from Moscow province franked according to the 'official' rate 2 rub. Three of the four registered postcard we have from Kiev were franked on 20 rub (one of them with addition of 1,230 rub in cash to match the transitional rate) but one more was paid in cash on 10 rub. The latter was accepted at the Kiev city 5th postal branch, while the others at the Kiev central post office. Thus, contrary to the expectations, almost all these postcards were franked as letters from the same regions. If putting aside the exceptional case from Prishib, Zaporozh'e province with a registered postcard franked on 35 rub, three postcards from Novocherkassk, Don province franked on 15 or 16 rub are the only exceptions. This is not in tally with three registered letters from the same Novocherkassk having a 10-rub, 20-rub and even 30-rub franking. True, the first letter was sent in March, while the postcards and other two letters in June to September.

The analysis of sample shows also that while the former foreign postal rates were replaced temporarily by much higher inland rates introduced in mid-August 1921 in such large cities as e.g. Moscow, Petrograd and Kiev, the former rates still persisted as late as in September in the provinces, e.g. Arkhangel'sk and Novocherkassk. However, the former rates continued to be applied at some town post branches of such large cities as Moscow and Petrograd, while the central post offices of these cities already applied the new rates.

Thus, summing up the said above and ignoring some extreme, falling-out points of the sample, one can draw the following conclusions as concerns the prevailing trends:

1)the foreign postal rates applied on the spots depended in a great degree on that, how the local postal authorities interpreted the circulars of the Central Postal Administration, particularly, what rates they took for the basic ones when calculating the actual rates;
2)the tariffs indicated in [8] as introduced on 6 June and 30 September 1920 were applied in most regions of Soviet republics during the 2nd half of 1920 and partly the very first months of 1921, although the senders preferred to send ordinary mail post-free even long after 30 September;
3)in 1921 (somewhere even earlier) the tariffs for letters were doubled in some provinces (definitely, in Kiev and Ekaterinoslav), while in the most regions they remained unchanged until August-September (e.g. in Moscow, Petrograd, Arkhangel'sk, Kharkov, etc) if ignoring some cases falling out. In a few provinces, still higher rates were fixed (e.g. 25 r for registered letters in Odessa). However, it seems that the tariffs for the postcard mail were made equal to those for letters almost everywhere in contradiction with the UPU rules for international mail where the postcard rates should be 2.5 times lower than the rates for letters. On the other hand, it would not be quite correctly stating that inland rates were applied to the mail abroad in most regions, since ordinary letters and postcards abroad were in this period usually franked.
4)in some cases, the rates applied in the provincial centers did not coincide with those in some other localities of the same province; they could differ sometimes even within the same city.
5)in the period between the introduction of new, drastically increased inland rates on 15 August 1921 and introduction of new, also increased foreign rates (as from 25 August and later), the new inland rates were applied to foreign mail as well but in some provinces (e.g. Petrograd, Moscow, Kiev), the periods of application of these tariffs being shifted relative to the original dates. However, the former foreign rates persisted until mid-September in some other provinces.
6)the cases of local tariff autonomy were caused either by the corresponding decrees of local postal authorities (e.g. Kiev, probably also Ekaterinoslav, Odessa etc) or ignorance of the postal rates officially in effect by the postal officials (not speaking of the public) at some post offices.

Now to the so-called
"Tariff autonomy" of Khashchevato

described by W. Leupold [1] who collected data on 24 registered letters sent abroad from the locality Khashchevato, Ukraine within the period from 6 October to 10 December 1921, all franked in cash on 3,125 rub, while the official rate for such letters is believed to be changed during this period from 2,000 rub to 10,000 rub. However, Leupold mentions in the same article also a similar cover from Rybnitsa, also at that time in Ukraine franked in the same manner. At last, I recorded myself a registered letter with the 3,125-rub cash franking dispatched from Tsebrikovo to Germany as early as on 7 September 1921. At last, there is a cover from Odessa registered there on 9 September 1921 to the USA. A handstamp of cash payment on an amount of 3,125 rub written in is applied to its front (offered at the Cherrystone auction of February 10, 2011, lot 2028, fig. 42).
Fig. 42
One should have in mind when analyzing these covers that both Khashchevato and Rybnitsa, although having the abbreviation "Pod." (i.e. Podolia) in their date cancellers, were at that particular period parts of the Odessa rather than Podolia province. The same applies to Tsebrikovo with the abbreviation "Khers." (Kherson) in the date postmark. Thus, it follows that this peculiar rate was applied not only at Khashchevato but in a larger area being the whole Odessa province with its center and in the period including also September 1921. The cash franking was at that time a routine officially prescribed for the registered mail because of an acute shortage of postage stamps. Only ordinary mail should be franked with stamps. There exists also a registered letter from Odessa to Berlin sent on 30 December and franked on 10,000 rubles with 10 x 1,000-rub RSFSR definitives of 1921. Supposedly, the transfer to the new set of rates took place in those areas probably by the end of December and new stamps were received there by this time.

As to ordinary letters, there exists e.g. a letter mailed on 12 September 1921 from Odessa to Berlin and franked with a strip of four 25-kop PSB stamps officially allowed for postage and revalued to 250 rub each totaling to the 1,000-rub franking in a strict accordance with the official foreign rate of that time.

The amount 3,125 rub itself was in contradiction with the UPU rules according to which the ordinary letter rate was equal to the registration fee; this sum, however, does not allow such division. One can only suppose until a further clarification that a local due of 1,125 rub was included in this tariff. The problem of probable local taxes will be discussed later in this paper.

Unfortunately, a complete lack of any postcards from this area and this period in our sample prevents from any convictive conclusions concerning the foreign rates in the Odessa province.

Let us now see, how were the matters at the same time in the neighboring Podolia province. The four ordinary and nine registered letters known to me also do not let to draw any definitive conclusions.
Dispatch place Dispatch date Destination Franking Figure
 click for picture
Ordinary letters
Gaisin28.10.21USA500 r*
Yarmolintsy06.11.21USA500 r43
Myastnovka03.12.21Germany1,000 r
Myastnovka06.12.21Germany1,000 r
Pavoloch, Kiev prov.22.11.21Germany1,000 r
Registered letters
Gaisin06.10.21Germany2,500 r
Bershad'08.10.21Germany2,000 r
Kamenka03.11.21Germany2,000 r
Gaisin13.11.21Germany2,500 r
Voroshilovka28.11.21Germany2,000 r
Golovanevsk28.11.21Germany2,500 r
Golovanevsk28.11.21Germany1,000 r
Murovanye Kurilovtsy07.12.21USA2,000 r
Zin'kov15.12.21Germany7,000 r
Kamenka18.12.21Germany7,000 r
Spichintsy, Kiev province13.12.21Germany7,000 r
Note: * taxed

The first two ordinary letters posted at the end of October and beginning of November are franked with a pair of the 3-rub Control stamps allowed for postage officially at 250 rub (fig. 43). Was the rate considered then 500 rub? Or were the Control stamps sold at 500 rub each? There is no answer to this question. The cover from Gaisin was taxed but the place of taxation remains unknown. This does not apply, however, to the cover from Yarmolintsy. Both covers from Myastnovka sent at the beginning of December are franked with four 250-rub RSFSR definitives which seem to be recently delivered to this area. The first of them is inscribed as registered but there are no signs of registration. The above listing includes another similar cover from Pavoloch, Kiev Gub. with the same franking. It was inscribed as registered too but this word was struck out. It looks, consequently, as the previous rate for ordinary letters still remained in force, at least, at the beginning of December.
Fig. 43
If putting aside the covers from Gaisin franked on 500 rub over the normal rate, this conclusion is confirmed by four letters registered in the period from the beginning of October to the beginning of December. However, it is difficult to explain the two remaining registered letters. If the transfer to the new set of rates (5,000 rub for ordinary and 10,000 rub for registered letters) took place from the second half of December, then why both covers are franked in cash as little as on 7,000 rub? Surprising are also two registered letters from Golovanevsk posted in the same day, one paid in cash on 1,000 rub and the other franked on 2,000 r with two RSFSR 1,000-rub definitives. At last, there is also a registered letter from the Kiev province showing use of the previous rate. Again, there are no postcards in our sample to specify the problem.

In any case, one can call it the tariff autonomy of Odessa province rather than Khashchevato as it concerns the foreign registered letters.

Inland rates of end-March-April 1922

V. Karlinski [2] includes in his tables of inland rates a set of rates dated 1 April 1922 that fixed, in particular, the tariff for ordinary letters at 10,000 rub and for registered letters at 30,000 rub. To confirm its existence, he illustrated an ordinary letter from the Tver' province franked on 10,000 rub. However, in the earlier article on this topic [3], he did not list this set directly but only mentioned it with reference to literature sources.

Such rates were introduced also in some other provinces as the available covers show. However, they were not introduced, at least, by the Central Postal Administration as evident from its circulars published in the official journal. To understand what happened, one should keep in mind that the official inland postal rates of 1 February 1922 were fixed in gold kopeks, while a factor converting these kopeks to the paper rubles was to be announced every month by the RSFSR People Commissariat of Finances and then by the People Commissariat of Posts-and-Telegraphs. In particular, the ordinary letter rate was fixed at 5 gold kop and the registration fee at 10 gold kop. The conversion factor by 1 February was 1 gold kop = 1,500 paper rubles; thus the ordinary letters should be franked on 7,500 rub and registered letters on 22,500 rub.

Prior to 1 March 1922, the finance administration announced a new conversion factor: 1 gold kop = 2,000 paper rubles but the central postal administration did not confirm it. Consequently, the postal rates remained unchanged in most regions of the Soviet republics of Russia, Ukraine and Byelorussia until 15 April when the next set of rates was introduced but without reference to the gold currency. Nevertheless, the new conversion factor was taken into account by some local postal administration, particularly, at least, in a part of the Ukrainian provinces. In this case, the rate for ordinary letters rose to 10,000 rub and for registered letters to 30,000 rub. Figs 44 to 47 illustrate some covers franked according to these tariffs. Anyway, one can speak in these cases of local tariff autonomy.
Fig. 45
Fig. 47

The alleged foreign postal rates of 20 May and 1 December 1922

Such rates are included in his tables by Karlinski [2] but neither is confirmed by the Central Postal Administration circulars in the official journal. The first of these sets of tariffs includes in particular 50,000 rub for the ordinary and 100,000 rub for registered letters. A cover that might be franked according such rate is depicted in Fig. 48. It is an ordinary letter from Minsk to New York franked with seven RSFSR 7500-rub stamps making 52,500 rub in total. The cancellations are dated 19.4.23(!). However, such stamps could in no way be used in 1923 when the postal rates were higher on two orders of magnitude (taking into account two successive denominations of the ruble). Evidently, the year was wrongly adjusted in the canceller being actually 1922.
Fig. 48
Nevertheless, a single cover cannot be a reliable proof for the actual existence of this set of rates. Moreover, the next set of foreign tariffs was officially introduced at the beginning of May instead of 1 June indicated by Karlinski. Thus, there was undoubtedly some error in this case.

The matter looks, however, somewhat different in case of the rates of 1 December providing for 250 rub (in the 1922 rubles) for the ordinary and 500 rub for the registered letters. Despite the fact, that the previous rates were applied in the most regions up to 1 January 1923, there are examples of franking according to the abovementioned tariffs discussed in another paper by W. Leupold [9]. Fig. 49 shows one more example of such franking from Troitsk, Orenburg province. This registered cover dispatched to Estonia is franked with 70 x 7-rub Imperial Arms definitives (one stamp seems to be torn out) accounted at that time by the face value but in rubles of 1922. The total franking (with the missing stamp) is 490 rub, i.e. almost 500 rub less a negligible amount of 10 rub.
Fig. 49
Thus, we can speak in these cases also about a local autonomy. It is connected in this period probably with the changes in the rate of conversion between the Russian paper ruble and French frank on which the foreign postal rate were based. This conversion rate was announced regularly by the State Bank of RSFSR and confirmed by the Central Postal Administration that led also to the change in the foreign postal rates expressed in rubles. However, the change in the conversion rate by 1 December 1922 was not confirmed by the central postal authorities, so the postal rates in most regions remained unchanged. Nevertheless, some provincial postal administrations followed the instructions of the Central Bank and altered the postal rates.

Local dues

The local dues imposed on mail are not something exclusive. The most well-known case is connected with the Don province where even special Hunger Relief stamps (Mi. 1-4 Zwangsspendenmarken) were issued in 1922 to pay a local due over the legal postal rate.

Some unusual rates of 1921 described above, e.g. the 25-rub foreign registered letter rate in Odessa, can also be explained by a local due in this case, a 5-rub extra charge over the 20-rub rate. However, there is no sufficient evidence in these cases. Also the cases called the "postal autonomy of Khashchevato" can be ascribed to a local due.

True, there exists a circular of Central Postal Administration, i.e. People Commissariat of Posts-and-Telegraphs of RSFSR, under No. 26/688 dated 13 June 1922 which stated that there should be no other taxes or duties when taking in or handing out the foreign mail except the established postal and custom takings [10]. It seems that this circular was little observed on the spots.

A very probable case of local due is represented by registered covers sent abroad from Nikolaev (in 1922 the center of a province having the same name) in October 1922. Five such covers known to me are franked with the so-called Nikolaev provisionals (stamps 100 and 250 rub of the RSFSR 2nd issue as well as 15 and 20 kop Imperial Arms definitives locally revalued [11]) on 95 rub, although the official rate for this kind of mail was at that time 90 rub (Fig. 50). On the other hand, similar letters mailed from Nikolaev in August (5 known to me) are franked strictly in accordance with the 90-rub rate.
Fig. 50
There is also a direct evidence of that local dues were actually applied in the area and period under consideration. There is depicted in Dr. Ceresa's handbook [12] a registered cover from Bobrinets, a part of the Nikolaev province in 1922 dated 30 August 1922 and addressed to Libava in Latvia. Its franking consists of four revalued 250-rub definitives of RSFSR making 100 rub in total against the 90-rub rate. However, there is a manual inscription on the cover back stating that "local dues of 10 rub collected and booked" with a signature and official seal applied.

Fig. 51 shows a registered cover mailed on 6 November 1922 from Orenburg to Budapest, Hungary where arrived on 22 November and censored. The franking consisting of 18 10-kop stamps revalued to 10 rub each totals to 180 rub instead of 150 rub required by the rate in force. The overfranking 30 rub equals exactly to 20 per cent of the 150-rub rate. It could also be a local tax.
Fig. 51
At last, one more example, this time from the Minsk province. As the previous one, it is the only one of this kind known to me, so it does not allow drawing any far reaching conclusions. Nevertheless, it is of interest for the topic discussed here. The registered cover addressed to the USA from Uzlyany on 26 January 1923 is franked on 7 rub 70 kop in total in the 1923 currency with seven 100-rub and one 5-rub RSFSR definitives of 1922 (having in 1923 values of 1 rub and 50 kop, respectively) plus ten 2-kop Imperial definitives (valid again at their face value in 1923) (Fig. 52). This franking exceeds the official rate 7 rub by exactly 10 per cent. Just this fact allows the assumption that local dues were applied also in this case. Nevertheless, further examples of such mail from this period (beginning of 1923) and this area are necessary to clear the matter.
Fig. 52

1.Leupold, Wolfgang. Die "Tarifautonomie" von Hastchewata im Herbst 1921. DZRP 92, (2010), 36-38.
2.Карлинский В. Филателистическое исследование Франкировки писем РСФСР и СССР (1917-1971).
Советский коллекционер 9(1971), 48-61
3.Карлинский В. Советские почтовые тарифы.
Филателия СССР (1966) 4, 33-35; 5, 16-17; 6 13-17; (1967) 1, 9-11;
4.Бюллетень Народного Почт и Телеграфов РСФСР. (1920) 9.
5.Псурцев Н. Д. (ред.). Раэвитие свяэи в СССР. М. Свяэь (1967).
6.Бюллетень Народного Почт и Телеграфов РСФСР. (1921) 12-14.
7.Анголенко В. До стику Украïни э эакордонням (20-i роки.
Украïнський фiлателiстичний Вiсник 3(63) (2001) 6-25.
8.Epstein, Alexander. Die Postgebühren der RSFSR für die Auslandskorrespondenz in der Inflationszeit 1918-1923 - The Postal Rates of the RSFSR for Foreign Mail during the Inflation Period 1918-1923. Zeitschrift für Klassische Rußland-Philatelie / Journal of Classical Russian Philately 2 (1998), 25-31.
9.Leupold, Wolfgang. Inflation in Sowjetrussland - einige Erkenntnisse der letzen Jahre. DZRP 71 (1999), 11-16.
10.Бюллетень Народного Почт и Телеграфов РСФСР. (1922) 17.
11.Epstein, Alexander. Provisorische Verwendung von Briefmarken der RSFSR und des Kaiserreichs im Gebiet Odessa, 1922. DZRP 72 (2000), 10-16.
12.Ceresa R.J. The Postage Stamps of Russia 1917-1923. Volume V, The RSFSR. Section D2/D3, parts 19-25: 1922 issues, Definitives and Provisionals (Continued).


Fig. 1: 5-kop PS card used as blank for ordinary foreign postcard sent free from Solombala, Arkhangel'sk province (27.10.20) to Helsinki, Finland (22.XI.20) without being taxed. Censored in Arkhangel'sk (3.11.20).
Fig. 2: 5-kop PS card used as blank for ordinary foreign postcard sent free from Moscow (17.11.20) to Riga, Latvia (29.12.20) 5-kop PS card used as blank for ordinary postcard sent free from. Taxed in Latvia on 1 r 55 k (in Latvian currency).

Fig. 3: 5-kop PS card surcharged to 10 k in Ukraine and used as blank for ordinary foreign postcard sent free from Bergdorf, Odessa province (15.8.20) to Tartu, Estonia (17.X.20). Censored in Odessa (14.9.20). Taxed in Estonia on 100 penni.
Fig. 4: 5-kop PS card used as blank for ordinary foreign postcard sent free from Aramilevskoe, Perm' province (23.12.20) to Viljandi, Estonia (21.II.21). Taxed in Russia and Estonia on 100 penni.

Fig. 5: 20-kop PS card used as blank for ordinary foreign postcard sent free from Luga, Petrograd province (15.5.20) to Tallinn, Estonia (7.VIII.20) via Petrograd (19.5/29.6.20). Taxed in Estonia on 100 penni.

Fig. 6: 5-kop PS card (message part of double postcard) used as blank for ordinary foreign postcard sent free from Tsarskoe Selo, Petrograd province (7.7.20) to Riga, Latvia (14.8.20) via Petrograd (8.7.20). Censored in Petrograd. Taxed in Latvia on 80 k (in Latvian currency).5-kop PS card (message part of double postcard) used as blank for ordinary foreign postcard sent free from Tsarskoe Selo, Petrograd province (7.7.20) to Riga, Latvia (14.8.20) via Petrograd (8.7.20). Censored in Petrograd. Taxed in Latvia on 80 k (in Latvian currency).

Fig. 7: 3-kop PS card (reply part of double postcard) used as blank for ordinary foreign postcard sent free from Petrograd (30.11.20) to Hamburg, Germany. Censored in Petrograd. Taxed in Russia.
Fig. 8: Ordinary foreign postcard sent free from Petrograd (29/31.1.21) to Väike-Maarja, Estonia (13.3.21). Taxed in Russia.

Fig. 9: Ordinary foreign postcard from Petrograd (15.5.21) franked on 5 r with a revalued 5-k Imperial Arms definitive and sent to Tallinn, Estonia (12.VI.21). Censored in Petrograd.
Fig. 10: 5-kop PS card used as blank, franked on 7 r with revalued Imperial Arms definitives 3 k plus 4 x 1 k and sent abroad registered from Solombala, Arkhangel'sk province (16.12.20) to Vienna, Austria.

Fig. 11: 5-kop PS card used as blank (reply part of double postcard), franked on 10 r with a pair of revalued 5-k Imperial Arms definitives and sent abroad registered from Arkhangel'sk (8.8.20) to Zurich, Switzerland. Censored in Arkhangel'sk (10.8.20).
Fig. 12: 5-kop PS card used as blank, paid in cash on 10 r and sent abroad registered from Solombala, Arkhangel'sk province (12.9.21) to Berlin, Germany (27.9.21). Censored in Arkhangel'sk (19.9.21).

Fig. 13: 5-kop PS card used as blank, franked on 16 r with 4 x 4-k revalued Imperial Arms definitives and sent abroad registered from Novocherkassk, Don province (14.6.21) to Paris, France (1.7.21). Censored in Novocherkassk (15.6.21).
Fig. 14: 5-kop PS card used as blank, franked on 15 r with 2 x 7-r and a revalued 1-k Imperial Arms defibitive and sent abroad registered from Novocherkassk (10.6.21) to Belgium. Censored in Novocherkassk (12.6.21). 2x

Fig. 15: 20-kop PS card used as blank, franked on 10 r with a pair of revalued 5-k Imperial Arms definitives and sent abroad registered from Moscow (20.5.21) to Berlin, Germany (31.5.21). Censored in Moscow (23.5.21).
Fig. 16: 3-kop PS card used as blank, franked on 7 r with revalued Imperial Arms definitives 5 k and 2 k and sent abroad registered from Selishchenskie Kazarmy, Novgorod province (14.9.20) to Tartu, Estonia (15.X.20) via Petrograd (17.9.20).

Fig. 17: 5-kop PS card used as blank, franked on 10 r with a revalued 10-k Imperial Arms definitive and sent abroad registered from Petrograd (15/17.3.21) to Tallinn, Estonia (19.4.21). Censored in Petrograd.
Fig. 18: 20-kop PS card used as blank, franked on 10 r with a pair of 5-r Imperial Arms definitives and sent abroad registered from Petrograd (26.7.21) to Tallinn, Estonia (31.7.21).

Fig. 19: Registered foreign postcard franked on 10 r with a single revalued 10 k/7 k Imperial Arms definitive and sent registered from Rzhev, Tver' province (21.6.20) to Riga, Latvia via Moscow where censored (24.6.20).
Fig. 20: Ordinary foreign letter franked on 5 r with a single revalued 5-k and sent from Arkhangel'sk (27.6.21) to Karlsruhe, Germany via Moscow (4 Jul. 21). Taxed in Germany.

Fig. 21: Ordinary foreign letter franked on 5 r with a single revalued 5-k and sent from Moscow (?.8.21) to Vienna, Austria. Censored in Minsk (9.9.21).
Fig. 22: Ordinary foreign letter sent free from Krivoe Ozero, Saratov province (21.9.20) to Vienna, Austria. Censored in Moscow. Non-taxed.

Fig. 23a
Fig. 23b
Fig. 23:Registered foreign letter franked on 20 r with two revalued 10-k Imperial Arms definitives and sent from Kerch, Crimea (26.8.21) to Berlin, Germany (22.9.21). Censored in Kerch (26.8.21).

Fig. 24a
Fig. 24b
Fig. 24: Registered foreign letter franked on 10 r with a single 10-k Imperial Arms definitive and sent from Novocherkassk, Don province (25.3.21) to Tõrva, Estonia (11.4.21) via Moscow where censored (5.4.21).

Fig. 25a
Fig. 25b
Fig. 25: Registered foreign letter franked on 20 r with a pair of revalued 10-k Imperial Arms definitives and sent from Rostov, Don province (12.4.21) to San-Remo, Italy (24.8.21) via Moscow (18/20.4.21; also censored there) and Genova.

Fig. 26a
Fig. 26b
Fig. 26: Registered foreign letter franked on 10 r with the Kharkov provisionals 2 x 3 k and 2 x 2-kop with trident overprints revalued to ruble face values by RUB overprints) and sent from Kharkov (1.7.20) to New York, USA (1.10.21) via Petrograd (11.VII.20). Censored in Kharkov.

Fig. 27a
Fig. 27b
Fig. 27: Registered foreign letter franked on 10 r with 5 x 2-k revalued Imperial Arms definitives and sent from Kharkov (16.6.21) to Boston, USA (25 Aug. 21) via Moscow (5.7.21 where also censored on 8.7.21) and New York (21.8.1921).

Fig. 28a
Fig. 28b
Fig. 28: Registered foreign letter franked on 10 r with revalued 2 x 4-k and a 2-k Imperial Arms definitives with trident overprints sent from Belaya Tserkov', Kiev province (24.1.21) to New York (21.3/20.4.21) but undelivered to the addressee.

Fig. 29a
Fig. 29b
Fig. 29: Registered foreign letter franked on 20 r with 4 x 5-k revalued Imperial Arms definitives sent from Kiev (6/7.6.21) to Berlin, Germany (26.6.21) via Moscow (13.6.21) where also censored (18.6.21).

Fig. 30a
Fig. 30b
Fig. 30: Registered foreign letter franked on 20 r with a single revalued 20-k Imperial Arms definitive and sent from Igumen, Minsk province (4.7.21) to Detroit, USA (26 Aug. 1921) via Moscow (where censored on 13.7.21) and New York (23 Aug. 1921).

Fig. 31a
Fig. 31b
Fig. 31: Registered foreign letter franked on 25 r with a 15-k and 5 x 2-k revalued Imperial Arms definitives ad sent from Minsk (14.8.21) to Brooklin, New York, USA. Censored in Minsk.

Fig. 32: Registered foreign letter franked on 10 r with a pair of 5-k revalued Imperial Arms definitives and sent from Moscow (21.5.21) to Berlin, Germany (6.7.21). Censored in Moscow (1.6.21).

Fig. 33a
Fig. 33b
Fig. 33: Registered foreign letter franked on 10 r with a single 10 k/7k revalued Imperial Arms definitive and sent from Volokoslavlinskoe, Novgorod province (2.4.21) to Tallinn, Estonia (29.4.21) via Petrograd (13.4.21 where also censored) and Moscow (15.4.21).

Fig. 34a
Fig. 34b
Fig. 34: Registered foreign letter franked on 25 r with a 15-k and 10-k revalued Imperial Arms definitives and sent from Odessa (30.5.21) to New York, USA (13.7.1921). Censored in Odessa (31.5.21).

Fig. 35a
Fig. 35b
Fig. 35: Registered foreign letter franked on 25 r with a 5-r and a pair of 10-k revalued Imperial Arms definitives and sent from Odessa (25.8.21) to Leipzig, Germany (19.9.21). Censored in Odessa (25.8.21).

Fig. 36: 3-k PS letter-card used as blank for registered foreign letter franked on 10 r with a revalued 10-k Imperial Arms definitive and sent from Tsarskoe Selo (9.9.20) to Pilistvere, Estonia (15.10.20) via Petrograd (11/12.9.20) and Võhma (15.X.20).

Fig. 37a
Fig. 37b
Fig. 37: Registered foreign letter weighing 2 lots, franked on 15 r with revalued Imperial Arms definitives 10 k and 5 k and sent from Petrograd (2/4.8.21) to Leepaja, Latvia (8.8.21).

Fig. 38a
Fig. 38b
Fig. 38: Registered foreign letter franked originally on 20 r with a pair of revalued 10-k Imperial Arms definitives but charged then on 1,250 r in cash as for an inland registered letter and sent from Petrograd (22/24.8.21) to New York, USA (16.9.1921).

Fig. 39: Registered foreign letter franked on 10 r with a single 10-r Imperial arms definitive and sent from Petrograd (28/29.8.21) to Würtemberg, Germany.

Fig 40: Registered foreign letter franked on 50 r with a single 20-k and a pair of 15-k Imperial Arms definitive (the latter having Ukrainian trident overprint), all revalued, and sent from Dzygovka, Podolia province (27.8.21) to Rochester, USA (23 Aug./1 Sep. 1921) via Moscow (8.7.21) and New York (23.8/2.9.1921). The letter was not delivered to the addressee.

Fig. 41a
Fig. 41b
Fig. 41: Registered foreign letter franked on 20 r with a single revalued 20-k Imperial Arms definitive and sent from Kartachi, Pskov province (31.1.21) to Tallinn, Estonia (15.3.21) via Petrograd (3/4.2.21).

Fig. 42a
Fig. 42b
Fig. 42: Cover from Odessa registered there on 9 September 1921 to the USA. A handstamp of cash payment on an amount of 3,125 rub written in is applied to its front (offered at the Cherrystone auction of February 10, 2011, lot 2028)

Fig. 43a
Fig. 43b
Fig. 43: Ordinary foreign letter franked with a pair of 3-r Control stamps officially used for postage and sent from Yarmolintsy, Podolia province (6.11.21) to Brooklin, New York, USA. The amount of franking is unclear: either 500 r if the stamps were used at their official value 250 r or 1,000 r in accordance with the official rate if the stamps were used at 500 r.

Fig. 44a
Fig. 44b
Fig. 44: Ordinary inland letter franked on 10,500 r with ten 1,000-r RSFSR Jubilee stamps of 1921 issue plus two 250 r (+250 r) Hunger Relief charity stamps of 1922 issue and sent from Kaluga (21.3.22) to Moscow (24.III.22).

Fig. 45a
Fig. 45b
Fig. 45: Ordinary inland letter franked on 10,000 r with a pair of RSFSR 1-r stamps definitives surcharged to 5,000 r in 1922 and sent from Poltava (12.4.22) to Petrograd (21.4.22).

Fig. 46a
Fig. 46b
Fig. 46: Registered inland letter paid in cash on 30,000 r and sent from Mogil'na, Podolia province (12.4.22) to Moscow (22.4.22).

Fig. 47a
Fig. 47b
Fig. 47: Registered inland letter franked on 30,000 r with a block of four Kiev provisionals (5-k PSB stamps officially used for postage and surcharged to 7,500 r) and sent from Kiev (23.3.22) to Moscow (1.4.22). Returned to the sender.

Fig. 48a
Fig. 48b
Fig. 48: Ordinary foreign letter franked on 52,500 r (2,500 r over the 50,000-r rate) with 7 x 7,500-r RSFSR definitives of 1922 issue and sent from Minsk (19.4.23; actually an adjustment error - the year should be 22) to Brooklin, New York, USA.

Fig. 49a
Fig. 49b
Fig. 49: Registered foreign letter franked on 497 r of 1922 (i.e. 3 r under the 500-r rate) with 71 x 7-r Imperial Arms definitives (one stamp removed) and sent frm Troitsk. Orenburg province (20.1.23) to Tallinn, Estonia

Fig. 50a
Fig. 50b
Fig. 50: Registered foreign letter franked on 95 r of 1922 (5 r over the official 90-r rate) with the RSFSR definitives of 1921 100 r and 3 x 250 r locally revalued to 10 r and 25 r, respectively, and a pair of 5-k Imperial Arms definitives officially revalued to 5 r and sent from Nikolaev (6.10.22) to Berlin, Germany (20.10.22).

Fig. 51a
Fig. 51b
Fig. 51: Registered foreign letter franked on 180 r of 1922 (30 r over the official 150-r rate) with 18 x 10-k revalued Imperial Arms definitives and sent from Orenburg (6.11.22) to Njiredyhaza, Hungary via Budapest (22 Nov. 22). Censored in Hungary.

Fig. 52a
Fig. 52b
Fig. 52: Registered foreign letter franked on 7 r 70 k of 1923 (70 k over the official 7-r rate) with 7 x 100-r and a 50-r RSFSR definitives of 1922 (1 r and 50 k, respectively, in the 1923 currency) plus 10 x 2-k revalued Imperial Arms definitives (at the face value in 1923) and sent from Uzlyany, Minsk province (25.1.23) to Worchester, USA (26 Feb. 1923) via Moscow (31.1.23) and New York (21.2.1923).

LOCAL TARIFF AUTONOMIES      -      Addendum Part 1,
Alexander Epstein (Tallinn, Estonia) from DZRP No. 95,November 2011

This is an addendum to the article "tariff autonomies" about postal rates to foreign countries, published in DZRP 94 and 95. The following material was additional found in auctions of the last time, especially by Corinphila and Schlegel.

Dispatch place Dispatch date Destination Franking Figure
Ordinary postcards
Arkhangel'sk province
Solombala07.05.21Czechoslovakia4 r     *A1)Add-1
Charkow province
Charkow01.11.20Estoniafree (not taxed)Add-2
Ekaterinoslaw province
Jassinowataja12.06.21Germany20 r  *A2)Add-3
Pskow province
Pskow24.08.20Latviafree (not taxed)
Azerbaijan SSR
Baku21.06.21Germany20 r    *A3Add-4
Registered postcards
Arkhangel’sk province
Arkhangel’sk10.08.20USA6 r 70 k
Solombala17.06.21Finland12 r
Kremenchug province
Zlatopol’22.06.21USAin cashAdd-5
Kiev province
Kiev31.05.21Germany20 rAdd-6
Ordinary letters
Petrograd province
Petrograd16.08.21Belgium5 r
Registered letters
Gomel’ province
Rogatschew15.12.20Latvia40 r
Rogatschew30.05.21USA30 r
Jekaterinoslaw province
Jekaterinoslaw29.07.20USA20 r
Kiev province
Talnoe15.11.20USA15 r
Kiev08.09.21Denmark20 r +
Minsk province
Osipowitschi23.04.21Monaco15 r    *A4)
Moscow province
Moscow14.08.21Germany10 r
Odessa province
Odessa21.01.21Germany25 rAdd-7
Odessa14.07.21USA25 rAdd-8
Alexanderhilf16.08.21Germany20 rAdd-9
Petrograd province
Petrograd16.07.21Germany10 r
Podolia province
Dzygovka22.06.21USA50 r
Dzygovka18.07.21USA50 r
Saporoshje province
Alexandrowsk (Saporoshje)21.06.21Germany20 rAdd-10
Volyn’ province
Iskorost'22.06.21USA10 r
Iskorost'23.06.21USA10 rAdd-11
Kutuzowo29.07.21USA20 rAdd-12

*A1)Two postcards were sent on the same day in the same country
*A2)Stamp is not cancelled, date of the railway-postmark "Snamenka-100-Rostow" 15-06-21
*A3)From september 1920 until September-December 1921 Soviet-Azerbaijan had the same post-rules and in parts the same tariffs together with the Soviet Union. Also russian stamps could be usend for postage.
*A4)four 50-kop stamps are fallen off

Fig. A1: postcard sent from Solombala, Arkhangel'sk province (7.5.21)
to Holesov, Czechoslovakia, 4 rub
Fig. A2: postcard sent free from Charkow (1.11.20) to Reval, Estonia

Fig. A3: postcard sent from Jassinowataja Ekaterinoslaw province 12.06.21 to Berlin/Germany 20 rub
Fig. A4: postcard sent from Baku 21.6.20 Berlin, Germany
20 rub

Fig. A5 registered postcard from Zlatopol’ 22.06.21 to New York/USA, in cash
Fig. A6a: postcard sent from Kiev to Germany/Berlin 31.5.21
Fig. A6b: 20 rub

Fig. A7 registered letter from Odessa 21.01.21 to USA, 25 rub
Fig. A8a: registerd Letter Odessa 14.07.21 to New York/USA
Fig. A8b: 25 rub

Fig. A9a: registerd Letter from Alexanderhilf, Odessa province
Fig. A9b:14.07.21 sent to Tübingen/Germany, 20 rub

Fig. A10a: registerd Letter from Alexandrowsk, Saporoshje province
Fig. A10b: 21.06.21 sent to Nuremberg/Germany, 20 rub

Fig. A11 registered letter from Iskorost’ Volyn’ province, 22.06.21 to USA, 10 rub
Fig. A12a: registerd Letter from Kutuzowo, Volyn’ province
Fig. A12b: 29.07.21 sent to New York/USA, 20 rub

** Ende Addendum **