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POSTCARD MAIL IN THE YEARS OF REVOLUTION, CIVIL WAR, AND INFLATION IN RUSSIA (1917-1923)
PART III: INFLATION (1922-1923)
Alexander Epstein (Tallinn, Estonia)


In 1922 and especially 1923, the postal rates were changed still more and more often because of the developing inflation.
 
Inland postal rates of 1 February 1922
Ordinary postcard:                          3000 rub               (to 14 April 1922)
Ordinary local & inl. printed matter:    1500 rub               (to 14 April 1922)
Registration fee:                           15000 rub               (to 14 April 1922)
 
This set of postal rates was fixed in the conventional (pre-WWI) gold currency: ordinary postcard - 2 kop, ordinary printed matter - 1 kop, registration - 10. The conversion factor was 1 gold kopeck = 1500 paper rubles. However, such method of fixing the postal rates was rejected for the following sets of tariffs and resumed only much later, in August 1923. The conversion factor was changed by the financial authorities to 1 kop = 2000 rub as from 1 April 1922 but it was generally not accepted by the post. Nevertheless, the inland postal rates were revised in some areas taking into account this factor, and items of mail can be found from the period of 1 April to 14 April franked accordingly (e.g. postcards franked at 4000 rub).
Fig. 1: 20-kop PS card used as blank and franked with 3 x 1000-rub RSFSR definitives as an ordinary postcard mailed on 6 March 1922 from Petrograd to Moscow. 
 
 
Foreign postal rates of 22 February 1922*
Ordinary postcard:                        6000 rub        (to 31 March 1922)
Ordinary printed matter:                3000 rub         (to 31 March 1922)
Registration fee:                         15000 rub         (to 31 March 1922)
*The corresponding circulars did not specify the exact date of introduction of this and most other foreign rates in 1922. In these cases, the date of the circular itself is indicated instead.
 
 
Fig. 2: 20-kop PS card used as blank and franked with 6 x 1000-rub RSFSR definitives as an ordinary postcard mailed on 20 March 1922 from Petrograd (where censored on 21 March) to Reading, England.
 
 
Foreign postal rates of 1 April 1922
Ordinary postcard:                        18000  rub        (to end of April 1922)
Ordinary printed matter:                  6000  rub        (to end of April 1922)
Registration fee:                           30000  rub        (to end of April 1922)
 
Fig. 3: 4-kop Imperial 4-kop PS card used as blank and franked with two RSFSR 250-rub definitives surcharged 7500 rub plus a 300-rub RSFSR definitive officially revalued to 3000 rub making the 18000-rub rate for an ordinary postcard mailed on 29 April 1922 from Moscow (where censored on 2 May) to Paris (where arrived on 11 May).
 
 
Inland postal rates of 15 April 1922
Ordinary postcard:                              20'000 rub        (to 30 September 1922)
Ordinary local & inl. printed matter:        10'000 rub        (to 30 September 1922)
Registration fee:                               100'000 rub        (to 30 September 1922)
 
With the introduction of this set of postal rates, the Imperial Arms definitives 1 kop through 14 kop revalued earlier to 1 rub through 14 rub, respectively, but withdrawn from use at the beginning of 1922 as well as 1 rub through 10 rub (except 3 rub 50 kop) were revalued again, this time 10,000 times (i.e. 1 kop or 1 rub = 10,000 rub etc). This revaluation was also true for the tariff abroad.

Fig. 4: : 20-kop PS card used as blank and franked with a 2-kop Imperial Arms definitive officially revalued to 20000 rub making the rate for an ordinary postcard mailed locally in Moscow on 27 and 28 September 1922.

Fig. 5: 5-kop PS card as blank with the Petrograd 10-kop surcharge used as blank and franked with 2 x 5-kop and a 2-kop Imperial Arms definitives, all officially revalued 10000 times and making in total the 120000-rub rate for a postcard registered on 2 May 1922 at Moscow to Petrograd where arrived on 5 May.

Fig. 6: 20-kop PS card used as blank and franked with an 1-rub Imperial Arms definitive officially revalued to 10000 rub making the rate for an ordinary printed matter mailed on 23 August 1922 from Petrograd to Tambov where arrived on 29 August.
 

Fig. 7: Picture postcard to Tomsk mailed on 25 July 1922 from an unidentified place and franked with a 2-kop Imperial Arms definitive surcharged "35"; however, the surcharge was not taken into account and the stamp was accepted for 20,000 rub.
In some areas of Siberia, stamps of the Kolchak administration were used for franking ignoring the surcharge.
 
 
 
Foreign postal rates of 30 April 1922
Ordinary postcard:                          120'000 rub        (to 30 June 1922)
Ordinary printed matter:                    40'000 rub        (to 30 June 1922)
Registration fee:                             200'000 rub        (to 30 June 1922)
 
Fig. 8: 3-kop Imperial PS card used as blank and franked with Imperial definitives - a 10-rub officially revalued to 100000 rub and a 2-kop officially revalued to 20000 rub making in total the 120000-rub rate for an ordinary postcard mailed on 7 June 1922 from Petrograd to Ruse, Bulgaria where arrived on 22 June.
 
 
Foreign postal rates of 1 July 1922*
Ordinary postcard:                         27 rub                (to end October 1922)
Ordinary printed matter:                   9 rub                (to end October 1922)
Registration fee:                            45 rub                (to end October 1922)
 
*This and the following sets of rates are fixed in rubles of 1922 equal to 10000 former rubles. As from July 1922, both the inland and foreign rates were expressed in the rubles of 1922. Accordingly, the same stamp value could be expressed in either currency, e.g. 1 kop = 1 rub of 1922 or 10000 former rubles.
 
Fig. 9: 5-kop PS card used as blank and franked with Imperial Arms definitives - 2 x 10-rub plus a 5-rub officially taken for 10 rub and 5 rub, respectively, in rubles of 1922 and a 2-kop officially taken for 2 rub, thus making the 27-rub rate for as an ordinary postcard mailed on 13 July 1922 from Moscow (where censored on 14 July) to Veisenshtein (now Paide), Estonia.
 
 
Inland postal rates of 1 October 1922
Ordinary postcard:                            5 rub                (to 31 October 1922)
Ordinary local printed matter:              5 rub               (to 31 October 1922)
Ordinary inland printed matter            10 rub               (to 31 October 1922)
Registration fee:                              15 rub               (to 31 October 1922)
 
Fig.10: Picture postcard franked with a 5-kop Imperial Arms definitive officially revalued to 5 rub in the 1922 currency and mailed as ordinary postcard on 30 September 1922 from Petrograd (thus forestalling the new rate for a day) to Moscow where arrived on 2 October.
 
Foreign postal rates of 25 October 1922
Ordinary postcard:                      45 rub                (to mid November 1922)
Ordinary printed matter:               15 rub                (to mid November 1922)
Registration fee:                         75 rub                (to mid November 1922)
 
Fig.11: 5-kop PS card used as blank and franked with 9 x 5-kop Imperial Arms definitives officially taken for 5 rub of 1922 thus making in total the 45-rub rate for an ordinary postcard mailed on 22 November 1922 from Guchkovo, Moscow province to Germany.
 
 
Inland postal rates of 1 November 1922
Ordinary postcard:                          10 rub                 (to 30 November 1922)
Ordinary local printed matter:           10 rub                  (to 30 November 1922)
Ordinary inland printed matter           20 rub                  (to 30 November 1922)
Registration fee:                             30 rub                 (to 30 November 1922)

Fig.12: 20-kop PS card used as blank and franked with a 10-rub stamp of the October Revolution Anniversary set for an ordinary postcard mailed on 25 November 1922 from Omsk Rlv. St. to Petrograd where arrived on 4 December.

Fig.13: Private PS formula card franked with a 10-rub Imperial Arms definitive officially taken for 10 rub of 1922 and mailed on 23 November 1922 from Kiev to Petrograd.
Foreign postal rates of 10 November 1922
Ordinary postcard:                        90 rub                 (to 1st decade of January 1923)
Ordinary printed matter:                 30 rub                 (to 1st decade of January 1923)
Registration fee:                          150 rub                (to 1st decade of January 1923)
 
Fig.14: Picture postcard franked with a 40-rub 'Star' overprint on 15-kop Imperial Arms definitive, a Hunger Relief stamp of end 1922 without face value but taken officially for 20 rub and 2 x 15-kop Imperial Arms definitives unofficially revalued to 15 rub each thus making in total the 90-rub rate for an ordinary postcard mailed on 7 December 1922 to Tallinn, Estonia.
 
 
Inland postal rates of 1 December 1922
Ordinary postcard:                       20 rub                (to 31 December 1922)
Ordinary local printed matter:        15 rub                 (to 31 December 1922)
Ordinary inland printed matter        30 rub                 (to 31 December 1922)
Registration fee:                         40 rub                 (to 31 December 1922)
 

Fig.15: Picture postcard franked with a 10-kop/7-kop and 2 x 5-kop Imperial Arms definitives officially revalued to rubles of 1922 thus making the 20-rub rate for an ordinary postcard mailed on 1 January 1923 from Trotsk, Petrograd province to Petrograd. This is already in the new tariff but maybe posted the evening before.

Fig.16: 5-kop PS card with 10-kop Ukrainian Poltava trident surcharge and the control cachet of Kiev Post Office used as blank, franked with 2 x 5-kop Imperial Arms definitives officially revalued to 5 rub in the 1922 currency and mailed as an ordinary postcard on 5 December 1922 from Kiev to Moscow where arrived on 9 December. As the rate in force was 20 rub at that time, a postage due marking was applied with an amount of "50" written in representing the deficiency to the registered postcard rate (20 + 40 - 10 = 50 Rub). This new taxation rule was introduced in the last quarter of 1922 and replaced the previous "twice the deficiency rule".
Inland postal rates of 1 January 1923*
Ordinary postcard:                        50 kop                (to 9 March 1923)
Ordinary local printed matter:          40 kop                (to 9 March 1923)
Ordinary inland printed matter         75 kop                (to 9 March 1923)
Registration fee:                            1 rub                 (to 9 March 1923)
 
*This and the following sets of rates are fixed in rubles of 1923 equal to 100 rubles of 1922
 
 
Fig. 17: 5-kop PS card used as blank and franked with a 50-rub RSFSR definitive taken for 50-kop in the currency of 1923 thus making the corresponding rate for an ordinary postcard mailed on 12 February 1923 from Moscow Northern Rlv. Station to Saratov where received on 20 February.
 
 
Foreign postal rates of 9 January 1923
Ordinary postcard:                         2 rub 10 kop        (to 2nd decade of February 1923)
Ordinary printed matter:                         70 kop         (to 2nd decade of February 1923)
Registration fee:                            3 rub 50 kop        (to 2nd decade of February 1923)
 
Fig. 18: 5 + 5 kop double PS card franked with 10 x 70-kop Imperial Arms definitives having the 20-r 'Star' overprint plus a 10-rub RSFSR definitive of 1922 making in total 2 rub 10 kop in the 1923 currency and mailed on 10 February 1923 from Moscow to Leipzig, Germany.
 
 
Foreign postal rates of 19 February 1923
Ordinary postcard:                        3 rub                 (to 1st decade of April 1923)
Ordinary printed matter:                 1 rub                 (to 1st decade of April 1923)
Registration fee:                           5 rub                 (to 1st decade of April 1923)
 

Fig. 19: Picture postcard franked with 3 x 100-rub 'Star' overprint on 15-kop Imperial Arms definitive thus totaling to 3 rub in the 1923 currency and mailed on 21 March 1923 from Petrograd to Tallinn, Estonia where arrived on 25 March.

Fig. 20: 3-kop Imperial PS card used as blank and franked with 8 x 15-kop Imperial Arms definitives having the 100-rub 'Star' overprint thus making the 8-rub (in rubles of 1923) rate for a postcard registered on 5 March 1923 at Petrograd to Lahti, Finland where received on 9 March.
 
 
Inland postal rates of 10 March 1923
Ordinary postcard:                            75 kop                (to 30 April 1923)
Ordinary local printed matter:             55 kop                 (to 30 April 1923)
Ordinary inland printed matter     1 rub 15 kop                (to 30 April 1923)
Registration fee:                       1 rub 50 kop                (to 30 April 1923)
 
Fig. 21: Picture postcard franked with 2 x 40-rub 'Star' overprint on 15-kop Imperial Arms definitive making 80 kop in the 1923 currency (5 kop over the rate, but there were no stamps with a face value matching that rate) and mailed as ordinary postcard on 27 April 1923 from Gzhel'sk to Moscow where received on 28/29 April.
 
 
 
Foreign postal rates of 6 April 1923
Ordinary postcard:                        4 rub                  (to 1st decade of May 1923)
Ordinary printed matter:                 1 rub 30 kop        (to 1st decade of May 1923)
Registration fee:                           6 rub 50 kop        (to 1st decade of May 1923)
 
Fig. 22: Picture postcard franked with Imperial Arms definitives with 'Star' overprints: 2 x 70 kop surcharged 20 rub, 1 x 50 kop surcharged 30 r and 1 x 15 kop surcharged 40 rub plus RSFSR definitives of 1922: 2 x 100 rub, 1 x 70 rub, 1 x 50 rub and 1 x 10 rub plus a 10 rub October Revolution Jubilee stamp making in total 4 rub 50 kop in the 1923 currency, i.e. overfranked on 50 kop against the rate in force, and mailed on 21 April 1923 from Kiev to Hamburg, Germany.
 
Inland postal rates of 1 May 1923
Ordinary postcard:                         1 rub                (to 19 May 1923)
Ordinary local printed matter:         50 kop                (to 19 May 1923)
Ordinary inland printed matter          1 rub                (to 19 May 1923)
Registration fee:                            2 rub                (to 19 May 1923)
 

Fig. 23: Imperial 4-kop PS card with 10-kop Ukrainian (Odessa) trident surcharge used as blank and franked with a 100-rub RSFSR definitive of 1922 making the 1-rub ordinary postcard rate (in the 1923-currency) for an ordinary postcard mailed on 31 April 1923 to Yalta where received on 2 May.

Fig. 24: Ordinary inland printed matter sent on 12 May 1923 from Zlatoust to Moscow where received on 16 May; franked with a single RSFSR 100-rub definitive of 1922 taken for 1 rub of 1923.
Foreign postal rates of 8 May 1923
Ordinary postcard:                        6 rub                (to 19 August 1923)
Ordinary printed matter:                 2 rub                (to 19 August 1923)
Registration fee:                         10 rub                (to 19 August 1923)
 
Fig. 25: 20-kop PS card used as blank and franked with 3 x 15-kop Imperial Arms definitives having the 200-rub 'Star' overprint thus making in total 6 rub (in rubles of 1923) rate for an ordinary postcard mailed on 5 July 1923 from Petrograd to London.
 
 
Inland postal rates of 20 May 1923
Ordinary postcard:                        1 rub 50 kop        (to 9 June 1923)
Ordinary local printed matter:                 75 kop        (to 9 June 1923)
Ordinary inland printed matter         1 rub 50 kop        (to 9 June 1923)
Registration fee:                           3 rub                 (to 9 June 1923)
 
Fig. 26: Imperial PS formula card for official mail franked with 2 x 15-kop Imperial Arms definitives overprinted with "Star" and 40 rub plus a 70-rub RSFSR definitive thus making in total 1 rub 50 kop for an ordinary postcard mailed on 9 June 1923 from Chakino, Tambov province to Tambov where received on 11 June.
 
 
Inland postal rates of 10 June 1923
Ordinary postcard:                        2 rub                (to 4 July 1923)
Ordinary local printed matter:         1 rub                (to 4 July 1923)
Ordinary inland printed matter         2 rub                (to 4 July 1923)
Registration fee:                          4 rub                (to 4 July 1923)
 

Fig. 27: 20-kop PS card used as blank with the control cachet of Northwest Communications District Administration and franked with a 15-kop Imperial Arms definitive having the 200-rub "Star" overprint thus making the 2-rub rate (in rubles of 1923) for an ordinary postcard mailed on 1 July 1923 from Petrograd to Strelna where received on the same day.

Fig. 28: 20-kop PS card used as blank with the control cachet of Northwest Communications District Administration mailed without franking on 16 June 1923 at TPO 2 Moscow-Petrograd to Petrograd where arrived on 18 June. The card was taxed on 6 rub equal to the deficiency to the registered postcard rate.
Inland postal rates of 5 July 1923
Ordinary postcard:                       3 rub                 (to 19 August 1923)
Ordinary local printed matter:        1 rub 50 kop        (to 19 August 1923)
Ordinary inland printed matter        3 rub                 (to 19 August 1923)
Registration fee:                          6 rub                 (to 19 August 1923)
 
Fig. 29: Picture postcard franked with a 3-rub RSFSR definitive of 1923 and mailed on 7 August 1923 from Novyi-Simeiz in the Crimea to Petrograd where arrived on 11 August.
 
 
The next sets of inland postal rates were fixed in gold kopecks and a conversion factor connecting the gold and paper currencies was introduced. This factor was periodically revised up to 30 November when stamps with the face value in the paper currency were invalidated. The rates in gold kopecks were the following: ordinary postcard - 4 kop, ordinary local printed matter - 1 kop, ordinary inland printed matter - 2 kop, registration - 6 kop. When calculating the rates in the 1923-currency, extra amounts in kopecks up to 50 kop inclusively should be approximated to 50 kop and those over 50 kop to 1 rub.
 
Inland postal rates of 20 August 1923 (conversion factor: 1 gold kop = 130 kop)
Ordinary postcard:                        5 rub 50 Kop        (to 31 August 1923)
Ordinary local printed matter:         1 rub 50 kop         (to 31 August 1923)
Ordinary inland printed matter         3 rub                  (to 31 August 1923)
Registration fee:                           8 rub                  (to 31 August 1923)
 
 
Fig. 30: Picture postcard franked with a 5-rub RSFSR definitive of 1923 and a 50-rub RSFSR definitive of 1922 totaling to 5 rub 50 kop in the 1923 currency and mailed as ordinary postcard on 22 August 1923 from Moscow Nikolai Rlv. St. to Petrograd where arrived on 23 August.
 
Foreign postal rates of 20 August 1923
Ordinary postcard:                        9 rub                (to 31 August 1923)
Ordinary printed matter:                3 rub                (to 31 August 1923)
Registration fee:                         15 rub                (to 31 August 1923)
 
Fig. 31: Ukrainian PS formula card with a blank control cachet of Odessa Postal/Telegraphic District franked with a 5-rub plus a 4-rub RSFSR definitive of 1923 making the 9-rub ordinary postcard rate and mailed on 4 September 1923 from Odessa to Berlin. Used without problem a few days after the end of the tariff. Collection Dr. Wolfgang Leupold.
 
 
Inland postal rates of 1 September 1923 (conversion factor: 1 gold kop = 200 kop)
Ordinary postcard:                        8 rub                (to 15 September 1923)
Ordinary local printed matter:          2 rub                (to 15 September 1923)
Ordinary inland printed matter         4 rub                (to 15 September 1923)
Registration fee:                         12 rub                (to 15 September 1923)
 

Fig. 32: 5-kop PS card used as blank with the control cachet of Ryazan Provincial Department and franked with 3 x 200-rub and a 100-rub 'Star'-overprinted 15-kop Imperial Arms definitive plus a 100-rub RSFSR definitive of 1922 thus making the 8-rub rate (in rubles of 1923) for an ordinary postcard mailed on 11 September 1923 from Ryazan to Moscow where arrived on 12 September.

Fig. 33: Ukrainian PS formula card of Kiev Postal/Telegraphic District franked with a 5-rub plus a 3-rub RSFSR definitive of 1923 making the 8-rub ordinary postcard rate and mailed on 13 September 1923 from Kiev to Petrograd where arrived on 17 September.
Foreign postal rates of 1 September 1923
Ordinary postcard:                        12 rub                (to 15 September 1923)
Ordinary printed matter:                  4 rub                (to 15 September 1923)
Registration fee:                           20 rub                (to 15 September 1923)
 
Fig. 34: Picture postcard franked with a 10-rub RSFSR definitive of 1923 plus 2 x 100-rub RSFSR definitives of 1922 totaling to 12 rub and mailed as ordinary postcard on 13 September 1923 from Moscow to Tallinn, Estonia where arrived on 17 September.
 
 
Inland postal rates of 16 September 1923 (conversion factor: 1 gold kop = 330 kop)
Ordinary postcard:                     14 rub                (to 30 September 1923)
Ordinary local printed matter:        3 rub 50 kop       (to 30 September 1923)
Ordinary inland printed matter        7 rub                (to 30 September 1923)
Registration fee:                        20 rub                (to 30 September 1923)
 
Fig. 35: Picture postcard franked with a 10-rub RSFSR definitive of 1923 and 4 x 100-rub definitives of 1922 thus totaling to 14 rub of 1923 and mailed as ordinary postcard on 29 September 1923 from Goritsy, Yaroslavl' province to Rybinsk where arrived on 30 September.
 
 
 
Foreign postal rates of 16 September 1923
Ordinary postcard:                        18 rub                (to 30 September 1923)
Ordinary printed matter:                  6 rub                (to 30 September 1923)
Registration fee:                           30 rub                (to 30 September 1923)
 
Fig. 36: 5-kop PS card with 10-kop Ukrainian (Kharkov) surcharge and the control cachet of Kharkov Postal/Telegraphic District used as blank and franked with a 10-rub and a 5-rub RSFSR definitive of 1923 plus a 200-rub and a 100-rub 'Star' overprint on 15-kop Imperial Arms definitive making in total the 18-rub rate for an ordinary postcard mailed on 30 September 1923 from Kharkov via Kaunas (3 October) to Anikshiai, Lithuania where arrived on 4 October.
 
 
Inland postal rates of 1 October 1923
 
As from this date, the conversion factor was changed almost every day up to 30 November from 400 to 1320 kop for a gold kopeck. New definitives in the gold currency started to be issued in October and used for franking in combination with the former stamps in the paper currency. The latter were withdrawn from use as from 1 December.
Fig. 37: Ukrainian PS formula card with the control cachet of Odessa Post Office franked with a 20-rub RSFSR definitive of 1923 plus 3 x 100-rub and 2 x 50-rub RSFSR definitives of 1922 making in total 24 rub in conformity with the rate in gold kopecks and current conversion factor mailed on 16 October 1923 from Odessa to Moscow where arrived on 20 October. The conversion rate must have been 1 gold kop = 600 kop..
 
 
Foreign postal rates of 1 October 1923
Ordinary postcard:                        27 rub                (to 15 October 1923)
Ordinary printed matter:                  9 rub 50 kop       (to 15 October 1923)
Registration fee:                          45 rub                 (to 15 October 1923)
 
Fig. 38: 20-kop PS card mailed on 3 October 1923 from Detskoe Selo via Petrograd to Germany and franked with a 10-rub, 2 x 5-rub, 2 x 3-rub RSFSR definitives of 1923 plus an 1-rub charity stamp, which supplemented to the 27-rub rate without any postage due marking (offered and sold at Ebay).
 
Foreign postal rates of 16 October 1923
Ordinary postcard:                          12 kop        (to 30 November 1923)
Ordinary printed matter:                    4 kop        (to 30 November 1923)
Registration fee:                             20 kop        (to 30 November 1923)
 
*This set of foreign postal rates was fixed in gold kopeks but the former stamps of RSFSR remained valid for franking up to 30 November taking into account the current conversion factor that was changed almost every day as from 1 October. New definitives in the gold currency started to be issued in October and used for franking in combination with the former stamps in the paper currency. The latter were withdrawn from use as from 1 December.
 
 
Inland postal rates of 1 December 1923*
Ordinary postcard:                           4 kop                (to 15 December 1923)*
Ordinary local printed matter:             1 kop               
Ordinary inland printed matter             2 kop               
Registration fee:                              6 kop               
*As from 15 December, this rate was reduced to 3 kop.
Fig. 39: Official postcard blank of Riga Post/Telegraph District having a control cachet of Odessa Post Office and franked with a 3-kop plus a 1-kop USSR gold currency definitive making the 4-kop rate for an ordinary postcard mailed on 2 December 1923 from Odessa to Petrograd where arrived on 6/8 December.
 
 
Foreign postal rates of 1 December 1923
Ordinary postcard:                                       12 kop        
Ordinary printed matter:                                 4 kop                
Registration fee:                                          20 kop       
 

Fig. 40: Official postcard blank of Rostov Post/Telegraph District having a control cachet of Rostov People Communications District and franked with a 10-kop plus 2 x 1-kop USSR gold currency definitives making the 12-kop rate for an ordinary postcard mailed on 20 December 1923 from Novocherkassk to Nish, Serbia where received on 30 December.

Fig. 41: 5+5-kop double PS card used as blank with the control cachet of Northwestern Communications District and franked with 3 x 3-kop plus 3 x 1-kop USSR gold currency definitives making the 12-kop rate for an ordinary postcard mailed on 18 December 1923 from Detskoe Selo, Petrograd province to Tallinn, Estonia where received on 21 December.