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last update 8.12.2010
POSTCARD MAIL IN THE YEARS OF REVOLUTION AND CIVIL WAR IN RUSSIA (1917-1923)
Part 5:
White or Pink Regions in North, Northwest and West Russia,
Urals, Siberia and Far East (1918-1920)
Alexander Epstein (Tallinn, Estonia)


The postcard mail is found noticeably scarcer in comparison with the letter covers. It concerns in particular items franked according to the some inland postal rates of North Russia and most of the inland and some foreign rates of the Far East as well. Therefore, no appropriate examples of postcards could be discovered and illustrated for some of those rates.

NORTH RUSSIA - area administered by Government under Nikolai Chaikovski, later General Miller (capital Arkhangel'sk)

Inland postcard rates of Soviet Russia of 28 February 1918 (to May? 1919)
[postal rates 28 February 1918 - 14 September 1918: Ordinary postcard: 20 kop;
postal rates 15 September 1918 - 31 December 1918: Ordinary postcard:10 kop;
postal rates of 1 January 1919: Ordinary postcard: free (to 14 August 1921)
more details see article part I and II]
Fig. 1: 5-kop Russian PS card franked additionally with Imperial Arms definitives 2 x 5 kop and 4 kop plus a PSB stamp 1 kop, i.e. on 20 kop in total, and mailed locally in Arkhangel'sk on 15 November 1918.

Foreign postcard rates of Soviet Russia of 10 March 1918 (to the summer of 1919):
[Ordinary postcard: 12 kop, Ordinary printed matter: 6 kop, Registration fee: +30 kop;
postal rates of 1 January 1919 to 29. September 1920: free
more details see article part I and II]
Fig. 2: Picture postcard franked with a pair of 5-kop and a single 2-kop Imperial Arms definitive? i.e/ on 12 kop in total, and mailed from Arkhangel'sk on 1 November 1918 to Senegal. Examined by British military censorship at Arkhangel'sk (from eBay).
Sometimes, the senders being unaware of the actual rate franked their mail in such way that the prepayment would be anyway higher than the inland rate.
Fig. 3: Picture postcard franked on 30 kop with a 20-kop and a 10-kop Imperial Arms definitives and mailed from Arkhangel'sk on 15 April 1919 to Estonia. The card was also handled by the British Army FPO P.B. 2 and examined by British military censorship at Arkhangel'sk.

Inland postcard rates, May? 1919 - February 1920
These rates remain still unknown, since no corresponding item of inland mail has been seen.


Foreign postcard rates, Summer 1919 - February 1920
Ordinary postcard20 kop. (?)
Printed matter:10 kop.
Registration:+ 50 kop.

The foreign postal rates in Russia as from 1 September 1917 and later on both in Soviet Russia and some areas under the Whites (North Russia, Siberia and Far East) were fixed as multiples of the tariffs of 1890 (postcard - 4 kop, printed matter - 2 kop, registration - 10 kop) as the basic rates Alternatively, a new exchange rate between Russian ruble and French franc was being announced. In particular, it seems that the above set of rates was fixed as five times of the basic rates. This conclusion follows from the analysis of the available examples of ordinary and registered letters posted from this area after May 1919. No items of postcard mail from this period are recorded.


NORTHWEST RUSSIA - area of Northwest Russia occupied by Northwest Army under General Yudenich

The postal rates of Republic of Estonia in force at that time were fixed also as the tariffs of Northwest Russia assuming
1 Estonian penni (marka) = 1 kopeck (ruble).

Inland postcard rates, Summer 1919 - February 1920
Ordinary postcard15 kop.
Local printed matter:5 kop.
Inland printed matter:10 kop.
Registration:+ 30 kop.
Fig. 4: 5-kop Russian PS card franked additionally with a pair of 5-kop Imperial Arms definitives having the NWA overprint and mailed from Staropol'e, Petrograd province 0n 26 October 1919 to the station Borovik, Narva-Pskov railway, nearby Gdov. The arrival postmark of Polna dated 1 November was applied actually at Gdov

Foreign postcard rates, 1 July - end-December 1920
Postcard20 kop
Printed matter:10 kop.
Registration:+ 50 kop.
Fig.5: Picture postcard franked with a block of four 5-kop Imperial Arms definitives having the NWA overprint and mailed on 17 August 1919 at Pskov Rlw PO to Paide, Estonia (reported by Voldemar Treil).



Fig. 6: 5-kop Russian PS card franked additionally with 10-kop and 5-kop OKCA stamps, written in Yamburg on 18 October 1919 and handled at the NWA Field Post-and-Telegraph Office in Narva on the same day. The card was addressed to Tartu, Estonia where arrived on 24 October. Examined by the Estonian military censorship - the 3-angle marking.


WEST RUSSIA - part of Latvian territory occupied by West Army under Colonel Awalov-Bermondt

Probably, the current postal rates of Republic of Latvia remained in force in this area. However, the overwhelming bulk of mail found on market is franked quite arbitrarily being of purely philatelic origin and mailed within the town of Jelgava (formerly Mitava). It is unclear whether such mail was actually delivered by post, with exception of very few items.
Inland postcard rates,October - November 1919
Postcard5 kop. or 10 kop.
Local printed matter:?
Inland printed matter:?
Registration:+ 25 kop.
Fig. 7: Postcard blank franked with a 5-kop Latvian definitive having the West Army (??) overprint (2nd issue of WA) and mailed locally in Jelgava on 26 October 1919. Although inscribed as registered, the card has no registration cachet, and its franking suffices only for ordinary mail (Raritanstamps auction No. 44 of May 21-22, 2010).
Fig. 8: Postcard blank used as a local postcard mail registered in Jelgava on 11 November 1919 and franked with a 15-kop Imperial Arms definitive having an LP overprint and 70 (kop) surcharge, i.e. overfranked on, at least, 40 kop (eBay).




Foreign postcard rates,October-November 1919
Postcard15 kop.
Printed matter:15 kop.
Registration:+ 25 kop.

Mail abroad was possible at that time only to Germany. However, no postcard mailed in this way was found up to now, although letters do exist.


VOLGA AREA - KOMUCH (Committee of Members of Constituent Assembly) Government in Samara

Inland postcard rates of Soviet Russia of 28 February 1918 (to May 1919)
[Postcard: 20 kop., Inland greeting postcard: 35 kop., Local greeting postcard: 30 kop.,
Local & inland printed matter: 10 kop., Registration fee (domestic):+ 70 kop.
more details see article part I and II]

Fig. 9: Picture postcard franked with Imperial Arms definitives 5 kop and 15 kop and sent on 17 July 1918 from Buguruslan, Ufa province to Samara where arrived ten days later, i.e. on 27 July.


FAR EAST [before establishment of Admiral N. Kolchak November 1918]

Inland postcard rates of Soviet Russia of 28 February 1918 (to May 1919)
Postcard20 kop.
[more details see article part I and II]
Fig. 10: Picture postcard franked with Imperial Arms definitives 5 kop and 15 kop and sent on 14 November 1918 from Nikol'sk-Ussuriisk, Maritime province to Pervaya Rechka, the same province where received on 17 November.

Foreign postcard rates of Soviet Russia of 10 March 1919 (to the spring of 1919?)
Postcard20 kop.
[more details see article part I and II]
Fig. 11: Postcard blank franked with Imperial Arms definitives 2 kop and 10 kop and mailed from Vladivostok Railway PO on 5 November 1918 to Boston, USA.


URALS, SIBERIA AND FAR EAST - Government of Admiral N. Kolchak

Inland postcard rates of Soviet Russia of 28 February 1918 (to April / May 1919)
[postal rates 28 February 1918 - 14 September 1918: Ordinary postcard: 20 kop.;
postal rates 15 September 1918 - 31 December 1918: Ordinary postcard:10 kop.;
more details see article part I and II]
Fig. 12: Russian 5-kop PS card franked additionally with a 15-kop Imperial Arms definitive and mailed on 18 February 1919 from Omsk to Tomsk where received on the same day.


Fig. 13: Imperial 3-kop PS card franked additionally with Imperial Arms definitives 2 kop and 15 kop and mailed on 5 May 1919 at TPO 98 Irkutsk-Krasnoyarsk to Tomsk where received on 10 May. Although new inland rates were introduced by that time, this process did not take place simultaneously through Siberia and the Far East.


Foreign postcard rates, spring - May (?) 1919
Postcard:20 kop. (?)
Printed matter:10 kop.
Registration:+ 50 kop.

This set of rates was deduced on the basis of two ordinary letters sent in the spring of 1919 from Irkutsk to Denmark and franked on 30 kop. Both were taxed at Irkutsk on 40 kop that gives the letter rate and registration fee equal to it as 50 kop, i.e. five times of the basic rates (photocopies received from N. Krasheninnikoff). The dates of being in force of this and the subsequent foreign rates are approximate. They could vary for different regions.

Fig. 14: Russian 5-kop PS card franked additionally with a 20-kop Imperial Arms definitive and mailed on 25 April 1919 from Irkutsk to Denmark via Vladivostok where censored. The card seems to be overfranked on 5 kop (photocopy received from N. Krasheninnikoff).

Inland postcard rates, 26 April - 10 October 1919
Postcard:25 kop.
Printed matter:5 kop.
Registration:+ 70 kop.
Fig. 15: Imperial 3-kop PS card franked additionally with Imperial Arms definitives 2 kop, 2 x 5 kop and 10 kop and mailed on 25 May 1919 from Omsk to Novonikolaevsk where received on 27 May.
Fig. 16: Russian 5-kop PS card franked additionally with a 20-kop Imperial Arms definitive and mailed on 9 July 1919 from Tomsk to Novonikolaevsk.

Fig. 17: Private postcard blank franked with a 25-kop Imperial Arms definitive and mailed on 30 July 1919 from Biisk, Tomsk province to Novonikolaevsk where received on 5 August.

Fig. 18: Postcard blank of Samara Postal/Telegraphic District franked with a 2-kop Imperial Arms definitive surcharged 35 (kop) for the use in Siberia (i.e. overfranked on 10 kop against the rate) and mailed locally in Irkutsk on 7 June 1919.

Foreign postcard rates, May (?) - July (?) 1919
Postcard:28 kop.
Printed matter:14 kop.
Registration:+ 70 kop.
These rates are equal to seven times of the basic rates.
Fig. 19: Russian 5-kop PS card franked additionally with Imperial Arms definitives 4 kop plus 2 x 10 kop totaling to 29 kop, i.e. overfranked on 1 kop, and mailed on 18 July 1919 from Chita to Vienna, Austria
Fig. 20: Imperial 3-kop PS card franked additionally with Imperial Arms definitives 5 kop, 2 x 20 kop and 50 kop and sent registered on 11 June 1919 from Perm to New York, USA where arrived on 22 August.

Foreign postcard rates, August (?) - September 1919
Postcard:40 kop.
Printed matter:20 kop.
Registration:+ 1 Rub.
These rates are equal to 10 times of the basic rates.
Fig. 21: Russian 5-kop PS card franked additionally with Imperial Arms definitives 1 kop, 4 kop, 5 kop, and 25 kop and mailed on 26 August 1919 from Krasnoyarsk to Vienna, Austria.
Fig. 22: Russian 5-kop PS card franked additionally with a 2-kop Imperial Arms definitive surcharged 35 (kop) and mailed on 23 September 1919 from Krasnoyarsk to Salzburg, Austria (A. Speeckaert collection).

Inland postcard rates, 11 October 1919 - June 1920
Postcard:75 kop.
Printed matter:25 kop.
Registration:+ 2 Rub.
Fig. 23: Russian 5-kop PS card franked additionally with Imperial Arms definitives 20 kop and 50 kop and sent on 19 November 1919 from Blagoveshchensk, Amur province to Irkutsk where received on 22 November.






Fig. 24: Russian 5-kop PS card with an additional cash franking on 2 rub 75 kop (it looks as the 5-kop imprinted stamp was not taken into account or the card was overpaid on the same amount) and handed in as registered on 20 October 1919 at Sretensk, Transbaikal province to Petropavlovsk, Akmolinsk province. Actually, the card was posted on 5 November. Most probably, the card did not reach the destination at all, since Petropavlovsk was then already in the hands of Bolsheviks (reported by Henry Taparel).

Foreign postcard rates, October 1919 - June 1920
Postcard:80 kop.
Printed matter:40 kop.
Registration:+ 2 Rub.
These rates are equal to 20 times of the basic rates.
Fig. 25: Imperial 3-kop PS card franked additionally with Imperial Arms definitives 70 kop and 10 kop, i.e. overfranked on 3 kop, and posted on 8 December 1919 to Germany at TPO Manchuria-260-Chita. The violet censormark reads "Delayed by censorship" (Ivo Steyn collection).
Fig. 26: Russian 5-kop PS card franked additionally with Imperial Arms definitives 10 kop, 15 kop and 70 kop, on 1 rub in total and mailed on 4 November 1919 at Zairkutski Gorodok to Oranienburg, Germany; censored in Irkutsk.


It looks as the sender intended to hand in the postcard as registered (the former rate 98 kop); however, he decided for ordinary mail having learned that the new rate was 2 rubles higher. Another possible explanation is that this postcard was franked as a letter according to the previous set of foreign postal rates -1 rub.
Fig. 27: Postcard blank franked with 3 x 25-kop Imperial Arms definitives and sent on 20 March 1920 from Blagoveshchensk to Portland, USA. The card is franked according to the inland rate, i.e. with a 5-kop deficiency to the correct foreign rate. However, no postage due was raised.


TRANSBAIKAL AREA - Government under General Semenov (capital Chita)

The rare examples of mail from this area and this period known to us give some reasons to believe that there was no division into the inland and foreign rates.
Postcard rates,1st half of 1920?
Postcard:3 Rub.
Printed matter:?
Registration:+ 10 Rub. (?)
Fig. 28: Postcard franked on both sides with Imperial Arms definitives 2 x 70 kop + 50 kop + 35 + 20 kop + 15 kop + 4 x 10 kop, i.e. on 3 rub in total, and mailed on 12 February 1920 at Chita Rlw St. PO to Scottland (Ivo Steyn collection).


Postcard rates 2nd half of 1920?
Postcard:7 Rub.
Printed matter:?
Registration:+ 25 Rub. (?)
Fig. 29: Picture postcard franked with Imperial Arms definitives surcharged for the Transbaikal area: 2 x 4 kop to 1 rub and 2 x 20 kop to 2 r 50 k, i.e. on 7 rub in total, and mailed on 1 July 1920 from Chita to Sweden (A. Mramornov collection).


FAR EAST - Maritime area under the Maritime Zemstvo Board Government, then of Priamur Provisional Government under Spiridon Merkulov, both of Far Eastern Republic (FER) and, at last, Government of Priamur Zemstvo Territory (Krai) under General Diterichs (capital Vladivostok)

Inland postcard rates 22 June - 18 October 1920
Postcard:35 kop.
Printed matter:20 kop.
Registration:+ 1 Rub.
Unfortunately, no examples.

Foreign postcard rates 22 June - 18 October 1920
Postcard:40 kop.
Printed matter:20 kop.
Registration:+ 1 Rub.
Fig. 30: Official postcard blank franked with a 2-kop Imperial Arms definitive surcharged 35 (kop) plus unsurcharged 4 and 1 kop and mailed on 21 July 1919 from Vladivostok to Canada (eBay).

Both the above as well as the subsequent postal rates of the Vladivostok area were fixed in the gold-based currency introduced in June 1920.
Inland postcard rates 19 October 1920 - February 1921(?)
Postcard:3 kop.
Printed matter, local:1 kop.
Printed matter, inland:2 kop.
Registration:+ 7 kop.
No examples.

Foreign postcard rates 19 October 1920 - December 1921
Postcard:4 kop.
Printed matter:2 kop.
Registration:+ 1o kop.
Fig. 31: Picture postcard franked with a 4-kop definitive of the Vladivostok issue, FER and mailed on 29 November 1921 from Vladivostok to Rakvere, Estonia where received on 13 January 1922.
Fig. 32: Imperial Romanov Jubilee 4-kop PS card overprinted FER and mailed on 25 July 1921 from Vladivostok to Portland, USA (eBay).

Fig. 33: Russian 5-kop PS card with FER overprint mailed on 13 June 1921 from Vladivostok to Frankfurt-on-Main, Germany, i.e. overfranked on 1 kop. Properly, the card of such face value was destined for inland mail according to the rates of January 1921. Nevertheless, it was widely used for the mail abroad.
Fig. 34: Postcard blank franked with a single 4-kop Imperial Arms definitive and mailed on 15 October 1920 from Vladivostok to USA. Imperial Arms definitives valued in the gold kopeks were valid for postage from 19 October 1920 during the next six weeks (Ivo Steyn collection).

Inland postcard rates January 1921 - December 1922 (?)
Postcard:5 kop.
Printed matter:2 kop.
Registration:+ 2o kop.
Fig. 35: Postcard blank franked with a 5-kop definitive of the Vladivostok issue, FER and mailed in April 1922 from Vladivostok to Nikol'sk-Ussuriiski where arrived on 11 April (Ivo Steyn collection).

Foreign postcard rates January - December 1922
Postcard:8 kop.
Printed matter:4 kop.
Registration:+ 2o kop.
Fig. 36: Picture postcard franked with a pair of 4-kop definitives of the Vladivostok issue, FER and mailed on 22 April 1922 from Vladivostok to Valk, Estonia where arrived on 29 May via Tallinn on 28 May.

Fig. 37: Russian 5-kop PS card with FER overprint franked additionally with a 2-kop definitive of the Vladivostok, FER issue and mailed on 5 April 1922 from Vladivostok to M. Gladbach, Germany. The card was taxed because of 1-kop deficiency to the correct rate (eBay).


FAR EAST - Far Eastern Republic (FER) (capital Verkhneudinsk, later Chita)

Inland postcard rates of Soviet Russia of 10/20 March 1920, January - June 1921
Postcard:free
Printed matter:1 Rub.
Registration:+ 5 Rub. added to a conventional weight charge of 5 rub
No examples.
Foreign postcard rates of Soviet Russia of 30 June 1920
Postcard:2 Rub.
Printed matter:1 Rub.
Registration:+ 5 Rub.
Fig. 38: Picture postcard paid in cash on 10 rub and sent registered on 18 February 1921 from Chita Railway PO via Moscow and Petrograd (where censored) to Spain (Ivo Steyn collection). The fact is that a great majority of registered postcards sent from Soviet Russia abroad in 1920 to mid 1921 were franked just on 10 rub as this one, despite the official rate.
The subsequent postal rates of FER were fixed in the gold-based currency.

Inland postcard rates, 1 (?) July 1921 - ?.1922
Postcard:3 kop.
Printed matter, local:1 kop.
Printed matter, inland:2 kop.
Registration:+ 7 kop.
No examples.
Inland postcard rates, 1 (?) July 1921 - ?.1922
Postcard:3 kop.
Printed matter, local:1 kop.
Printed matter, inland:2 kop.
Registration:+ 7 kop.
Fig. 39: Picture postcard franked with a 4-kop Imperial Arms definitive and mailed on 17 October 1921 from Blagoveshchensk via Moscow (where censored on 11 November) to Rakvere, Estonia where received on 28 October. The stamp on the card reverse was not cancelled, i.e. the franking was either not recognized or unnoticed. Consequently, the card was taxed in Blagoveshchensk or Moscow with indication of the amount due 20 (French) centimes (in black) on the left converted then into 8 (Estonian) markas (in red in the upper right corner).

Inland postcard rates, ?.1922 - December 1923 (?)
Postcard:3 kop.
Printed matter, local & inland:1 kop.
Registration:+ 10 or 6 kop.(?)
No examples.
Foreign postcard rates, ?.1922. - December 1923
Postcard:12 kop.
Printed matter:?
Registration:+ 20 kop.
No examples.


FAR EAST - Amur province, a Soviet administration

Three to five letters or money transfer orders from 1920-21 are recorded from this area but no postcards. Thus, the postcard rates could not be deduced. There is some indirect evidence, however, that the Soviet Russia postal rates of 10/20 March and 30 September 1920 were in force in this area in 1921 prior to the incorporation into the FER.

No examples


FAR EAST - FAR EAST - incorporated into the RSFSR

It seems from a few ordinary letters known to us from 1923 that there were still in force Inland postcard rates of FER (Chita) of ?.1922 (to December 1923).
On the other hand, however, there exist, at least, two postcards from the same period franked both on 6 kop. Thus, the postal rates actually in force in 1923 still remain unidentified. More examples are necessary to draw any definite conclusion.
Fig. 40: Picture postcard franked with a 4-kop FER stamp of the Chita issue and a 2-kop FER stamp of the Vladivostok issue and mailed on 5 April 1923 to Petrograd where received on 25 April (reported by Andrei Averkiev).

There remained in force also the
Foreign postal rates of FER (Chita) of ?.1922 (to December 1923).


Fig. 41: 5-kop Russian PS card used as blank, franked with three 4-kop FER stamps of the Cita issue and mailed on 9 May 1923 from Vladivostok to Genzan, Korea (Ivo Steyn collection).
Fig. 42: Picture postcard franked with two 10-rub RSFSR definitives having the D.V. (F.E.) overprint and surcharged to 5 gold kopeks, i.e. on 10 kop, thus with a 2-kop deficiency to the rate and, consequently, taxed, sent on 17 December 1923 from Khabarovsk via Moscow to Poland. The card was retuned to the sender (eBay).


Sources:

The postal rates discussed in the present series of articles concerning the postcard mail were published in the form of review in the following papers by the present author:
• Почтовые тарифы РСФСР 1917-1923 г. г. «Коллекционер» Nō 40-41, M. 2005, 140-165.
(Postal rates of RSFSR 1917-1923. "Collector" No. 40-41, Moscow 2005, 140-165).
• Почтовые тарифы периода Гражданской войны в России:
несоветские регионы «Коллекционер» Nō 44, M.2008, 143-173.
(Postal rates in Russia through Civil War: non-Soviet regions. "Collector" No. 44, Moscow 2008, 143-173).
• Domestic postal rates of Russia for letters and postcards (1844-1923). "BJRP" No. 87, Dec. 2001, 45-47.
• Troubled years 1918-1921: Review of postal rates for mail abroad. "BJRP" No. 91, Aug. 2004, 25-41.
• Postal rates for banderols abroad in Imperial and Soviet Russia (1866-1923). "BJRP" No. 92/93, Oct. 2005, 104.
• Postal rates in the civil war years. "BJRP" No. 96/97, Nov. 2007, 145-149.
• Die Postgebühren der RSFSR für die Auslandskorrespondenz in der Inflationszeit 1918-1923 / The postal rates of the RSFSR for Foreign Mail during the Inflation Period 1918-1923. "Zeitschrift für Klassische Russland-Philatelie" / "Journal of Classical Russian Philaely" Nr. 2, 25-31.

The above articles have references to the sources used by the author. These references are represented by both the documental materials and appropriate articles of other authors. In their turn, the latter refer to the sources used by them.

It should be underlined that a great majority of postal rates of the Civil War period in the non-Soviet regions in Russia, especially he foreign rates, has no documental evidence. Therefore, such rates should be considered as tentative based on the available postal material. Some of them are confirmed by a sufficient amount of items of mail. There are, however, others that were deduced on the basis of very few examples or even indirectly. Naturally, such rates cannot be considered as definite and can turn out revised in the future.

Soviet Russia - RSFSR, FER (Chita)
• «Почтово-телеграфный журнал» - часть официальная, 1917-1919 ("Postal/Telegraphic Journal" - official part)
• «Сборник постановлений и распоряжений по Народному комиссариату почт и телеграфов», 1919-1921
("Collection of Decrees and Directions of People Commissariat of Posts-and-Telegraphs")
• «Бюллетень Народного комиссариата почт и телеграфов», 1921-1923
("Bulletin of People Commissariat of Posts-and-Telegraphs")
Northwest Russia
• Estonian State Archive, Fund 54, Inv. 4, File 27, Sheet 49. (published in: Alexander Epstein. The North-West Army Stamps and Postal History. "The Post Rider", No. 37, December 1995, 46-64).
Ukraine
• Александр Ивахно. Почтовые тарифы Украины 1918-1920 г.г.
«Украиннская и российская филателия» Nō 1, 1991, 7-13; Nō 1, 1992, 6-11; Nō 2(3), 1992, 12-14.
(Alexander Ivakhno. Postal Rates of Ukraine 1918-1920. "Ukrainian and Russian Philately").
South Russia
• Вiктор Могильний. З д&iяльности пошти на наших теренах за бiлих режимiв.
«Украïнский фiлателiстичний Вiсник», 1997, Nō 1 (41), 7-12.
(Viktor Mogil'nyi. On the postal activities in our territory under the 'White' regimes. "Ukrainian Philatelic Gerald")
• А. Винокуров. Таксы Почтово-телеграфных сборов на Дону в начале 1919 г. «Коллекционер» Nō 44, 2008, 238-239.
(A. Vinokurov. Postal/telegraphic rates in the Don area at the beginning of 1919. "Collector").
Siberia
• Dr. Ivo Steyn. Postal Rates in Kolchak's Siberia. "The Post Rider" No. 57, November 2005, 6-10.